Friday, 14 February 2014

Breast cancer in Vitamin B12's Points of View

 Kyle J. Norton

Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin, a water-soluble vitamin, found abundantly in a variety of foods, such as fish, shellfish, meat, eggs, dairy products, etc. plays an important role in regulating the functions of nervous system and formation of blood.
Breast cancer (malignant breast neoplasm) is a cancer started in the tissues of the breast either from the inner lining of milk ducts (Ductal carcinoma) or the lobules (Lobular carcinoma) that supply the ducts with milk. there is also rare cases of breast cancer started in other areas of the breast. In 2010, over 250,000 new cases of breast cancer were expected to be diagnosed in women in the U.S. alone and the risk of getting invasive breast cancer during life time of a women is 1/8.

Epidemiological studies linking levels of plasma of vitamin B12 in reduced risk of breast cancer have produced inconclusive results. In premenopausal women, Plasma vitamin B(12) levels were inversely associated with breast cancer risk(1)(1a)(1b)(1c). Unfortunately, in the study of the same, showed vitamin B-12, may confer little or no reduction in overall risk of developing breast cancer (2)(3)(3a).
In human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7 and normal mammary cells, MCF-10A, lipotropes containing methionine, choline, folate, and vitamin B12, showed an decrease of expression of bcl-2 in regulating apoptosis in lipotrope-treated MCF-7 cells of these suggestion of blocking  Bcl-2 might prove useful in sensitizing tumor cells to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis(4). In rat fed with  Lipotropes showed a reduction of tumor multiplicity and tumor volume significantly through decreased expression of histone deacetylase 1 (Hdac1) and DNA methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1) genes in tumor tissues of the rats(5). In the study of Maternal high-methyl diet, Lipotropes showed significantly decreased tumor incidence, tumor multiplicity and tumor volume, while also displaying a significant increase in survival rate and tumor latency in rat offspring(6) and enhanced the efficacy of chemo durgs, SAHA and DOX through induced apoptosis, inhibited cell growth, and displayed anti-proliferation(7).

Taking all together, one can say that the effective of vitamin B12 in reduced risk of breast cancer and enhanced the efficacy of chemo-drugs was found in conjunction with other members of the methyl group but not the vitamin itself. Over doses of the vitamin may induce symptoms of toxicity, including headache, giddiness and abnormal heart functioning, etc., please make sure to follow the guideline of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies.

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(1) Plasma folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, homocysteine, and risk of breast cancer by Zhang SM, Willett WC, Selhub J, Hunter DJ, Giovannucci EL, Holmes MD, Colditz GA, Hankinson SE.(PubMed)
(1a) Association of dietary intake of folate, vitamin B6 and B12 and MTHFR genotype with breast cancer risk by Liu Y, Zhou LS, Xu XM, Deng LQ, Xiao QK.(PubMed)
(1b) Dietary intake of folate, B-vitamins and methionine and breast cancer risk among Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women by Yang D, Baumgartner RN, Slattery ML, Wang C, Giuliano AR, Murtaugh MA, Risendal BC, Byers T, Baumgartner KB.(PubMed)
(1c) Folate, vitamin B12 and postmenopausal breast cancer in a prospective study of French women by Lajous M, Romieu I, Sabia S, Boutron-Ruault MC, Clavel-Chapelon F.(PubMed)
(2) Plasma folate, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and risk of breast cancer in women by Lin J, Lee IM, Cook NR, Selhub J, Manson JE, Buring JE, Zhang SM.(PubMed)
(3) Plasma folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and homocysteine and pancreatic cancer risk in four large cohorts by Schernhammer E, Wolpin B, Rifai N, Cochrane B, Manson JA, Ma J, Giovannucci E, Thomson C, Stampfer MJ, Fuchs C.(PubMed)
(3a) Effect of combined folic acid, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 on cancer risk in women: a randomized trial by Zhang SM, Cook NR, Albert CM, Gaziano JM, Buring JE, Manson JE.(PubMed)
(4) Lipotropes regulate BCL-2 gene expression in the human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7 by Hyung H. Kim, Chung S. Park(PubMed)
(5) Pubertal supplementation of lipotropes in female rats reduces mammary cancer risk by suppressing histone deacetylase 1 by Cho K, Choi WS, Crane CL, Park CS.(PubMed)
(6) Maternal high-methyl diet suppresses mammary carcinogenesis in female rat offspring by Cho K, Mabasa L, Bae S, Walters MW, Park CS.(PubMed)
(7) Lipotropes enhance the anti-proliferative effect of chemotherapeutic drugs in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells by Cho K, Mabasa L, Walters MW, Park CS.(PubMed)

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