Thursday, 28 June 2018

Degenerative Diseases - Beware of Substance Abuse Causes of Dementia

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar, Master of Nutrients), all right reserved.

According to US statistic, the rate of dementia has been falling sharply by 24 % from 2000 to 2012 in the age group of 65 and older. And the average age of people diagnosed with dementia in 2000, are 80.7 in compared to 82,4% in 2012(1).

One in 10 people will be diagnosed of dementia as some point in their lifetime. And 5.7 million Americans of all ages are living with Alzheimer's dementia in 2018.

Sadly, Alzheimer's disease is the sixth-leading cause of death in the United States, and the fifth-leading cause of death among those age 65 and older(2).

The diseases also is a leading cause of in reduced quality of life due to disability and poor health.

Unfortunately, the prevalent risk of dementia have escalated substantially in the East due to economic prosperity over last 30 years in increased living standard of population over a billion.

As a large percentage of these population have become followers of Western diet as they have made a lots of money in compared to others and the past.

Dementia is the loss of mental ability that is severe enough to interfere with people's every day quality of life.

Illicit drug used can severely damage  nervous system because of their direct and indirect effects on the integrity and function of nervous system tissue, probably through immune altered effects(124).

Injection drug users has shown to increase risk of dementia by up to 40% of patients with HIV infection(125), 

The list of illicit drugs can cause early onset of dementia includes

1. Heroin
Heroin (diacetylmorphine or morphine diacetate (INN)), also known as diamorphine (BAN), an opiate drug extracted from the seed pod of the Asian opium poppy plant, showed to induce dysfunction of different components of cortico-striatal (forebrain) circuitry in response to recognition memory, spatial working memory, planning, sequence generation, visual discrimination learning, and attentional set-shifting of groups of subjects(126).

2. Cocaine and Methamphetamine
Cocaine (benzoylmethylecgonine) (INN), a crystalline tropane alkaloid obtained from the leaves of the coca plant showed to induce rapidly accelerating HIV dementia accompanied by seizures and an unusual movement disorder(127).

3. Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)
Lysergic acid diethylamide, abbreviated LSD or LSD-25, also known as lysergide and colloquially as acid, is a semisynthetic psychedelic drug used to treat patients with mental disorders may temporarily alter the thinking processes, closed and open eye visuals, synaesthesia, an altered sense of time, etc.(128), but regain the ability to judge, to acquire competence and new learning, to focus attention and concentrate, to recall and retrieve relevant information(129)

4. Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, or MDMA
Ecstasy, a highly addictive drug, is a powerful CNS stimulant with chemically similar to the stimulant methamphetamine and hallucinogen mescaline induced confusion, depression, sleep problems, drug craving, and severe anxiety(130).

5. Other illicit drugs
According to the study at University of Rostock, Dr. Büttner A., drug abuse represents a significant health issue.
The major substances abused substances including cannabis, opiates, cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine and 'ecstasy'. altered intracellular messenger pathways, transcription factors and immediate early genes within the brain reward system may lead to cardiovascular complications, psychiatric and neurologic symptoms due to their widespread disturbances within the complex network of central nervous system in cell-to-cell interaction(131).

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Kyle J. Norton(Scholar, Master of Nutrition), all right reserved.
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) U.S. Dementia Rates Are Dropping Even as Population Ages, by NewYork Time
(2) 2018 ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE FACTS AND FIGURES by Alzheimer's Association(124) Neurologic disease in injection drug users: therapeutic issues by Royal W 3rd1.(PubMed)
(125) Antiretroviral therapy for drug users by Clarke SM1, Mulcahy FM.(PubMed)
(126) Profiles of cognitive dysfunction in chronic amphetamine and heroin abusers by Ornstein TJ1, Iddon JL, Baldacchino AM, Sahakian BJ, London M, Everitt BJ, Robbins TW.(PubMed)
(127) Acceleration of HIV dementia with methamphetamine and cocaine by Nath A1, Maragos WF, Avison MJ, Schmitt FA, Berger JR.(PubMed)
(128) Lysergic acid diethylamide(Wikipedia)
(129) The Consumers Union Report on Licit and Illicit Drugs by Edward M. Brecher and the Editors of Consumer Reports Magazine, 1972(Schaffer library and drug policy)
(130) Publications - DrugFacts(National institute on drug abuse)
(131) Review: The neuropathology of drug abuse by Büttner A1.(PubMed)

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