Thursday, 14 June 2018

Lifelong Use of 8 Types of Conventional Drugs May Cause Cognitive Dysfunction(Dementia and Dementia Like Symptoms) as We Age, Revealed by National Library of Medicine Studies

About 5-8% of all people over the age of 65 have some form of dementia, and this number doubles every 5 years.

Dementia is the loss of mental and physical ability that are severe enough to interfere with people's daily life and Alzheimer's disease is the most common type of dementia in aging population.

Western diet contains high amount of saturated and trans fat, artificial ingredients with less fruits and vegetable that can lead to dementia and other kind of diseases

Types of medication Can Cause Dementia or Dementia Like Symptoms
As aging, accumulation of toxins of certain medication used to treat certain diseases, such as antidepressants, sedatives, cardiovascular drugs and anti-anxiety medications may induce increased risk of cognitive dysfunction, leading to dementia and dementia-like symptoms(1).

1. Antidepressants, (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, antipsychotics and benzodiazepines)
An Antidepressant is a psychiatric medication used to treat mood disorders, such as major depression and dysthymia and anxiety disorders.

 In a study conducted by Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center of total of 230 participants  followed for a mean of 3.7 years with use of persistency index (PI)  to calculate all antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), antipsychotics (atypical and typical), and benzodiazepines as the proportion of observed time of medication exposure, researchers found that psychotropic medication used are associated with more rapid cognitive and functional decline in AD, expressed by symptoms scale.

Clinicians may tend to prescribe psychotropic medications to AD patients at risk of poorer outcomes, but one cannot rule out the possibility of poorer outcomes being caused by psychotropic medications(2)

2. Anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are pain reliever, used often to treat pain caused by over expression of inflammatory cytokines, such as arthritis.

There was a weak association between any NSAIDs and the risk of cognitively impaired, no dementia (CIND)(3)

3. Cannabis
Cannabis has been used for the treatment of a number of conditions, including neuropathic pain, spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis, and chemotherapy-induced nausea, etc,.

The study conducted by University of Western Australia showed that chronic use of cannabis may impair intellectual abilities but data on this topic remain sparse and difficult to interpret.

There  are evidences that some drugs contribute to the causal pathway that leads to the development of cognitive impairment but currently available data do not support the introduction of a separate diagnostic category of drug-induced dementia (such as alcohol-related dementia)(4).

4. Hallucinogens
Hallucinogens, psychedelic drugs, used primary action to alter cognition and perception may cause distortion of sensory perception, and other psychic and somatic effects, including sweating, heart palpitations, blurring of vision, memory loss, trembling, and itching(5)

5. Corticosteroids
Corticosteroids are synthetic drugs closely resemble cortisol, a steroid hormones produced by the adrenal glands to assist the physiologic processes, including stress response, immune response, and regulation of inflammation, carbohydrate metabolism, behavior, etc.

An excess can cause agitation and even dementia like symptoms(6).

6. Fluoroquinolone antibiotics
Fluoroquinolone antibioticsare are medication taken to treat a variety of infections.
However,  the drugs are associated to exhibit delirium in elderly patients(7).

7. H2-receptor antagonists
H2-receptor antagonists are medicines taken to reduce the amount of acid in the stomach by blocking one important producer of histamine2. These drugs are associated  to induce delirium in elderly patients(8).

8. Anticonvulsants
Anticonvulsants are types of medication used to treat epileptic seizure act on brain through different mechanisms. Intake of anticonvulsants can precipitate drowsiness and difficulty thinking, some more commonly than others(9).

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