Tuesday, 5 June 2018

Can Black Carrots Ameliorate Type 2 Diabetes? Revealed By MEDLINE Model Studies

Kyle J. Norton

Carrots may have a profound and positive effect in ameliorated types 2 diabetes, some scientists suggested.

The results of the differentiation were carried out by numbers of respectable Universities, including Nanchang University and published at numbers of online medical literature.

You can view the abstract of the quoted studies by clicking the resources links.

Diabetes is a condition characterized by insufficient insulin entering the bloodstream in regulation of levels of glucose.

The disease are either caused by cells in pancreas dying off or receptor sites clogged up by fat and cholesterol.

In some cases, diabetes is also caused by allergic reaction of cells in the immune system.

Symptoms of  type 2 diabetes are characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin with the most common symptoms of increased thirst, frequent urination, unexplained weight loss......

According to the epidemiological studies, uncontrolled diabetes may induce serious complications, including cardiovascular disease(5), nerve damage (neuropathy)(6), kidney damage (nephropathy)(7), eye damage (retinopathy)(7), foot damage(8), skin conditions(9),........

Carrot, a root vegetable with orange color is a sub spices of Daucus carota, belongings to the family Apiaceae, native to Asian and Europe.

1. Carbohydrates
2. Sugars
3. Fibre
4. Fat
5. Protein
6. Vitamin A
7. Thiamine (VittaminB1)
8. Riboflavin (Vittamin B2)
9. Niacin (Vittamin B3)
10. Vitamin B6
11. Folate (Vittamin B9)
12. Vitamin C
13. Vitamin K
14. Calcium
15. Iron
16. Magnesium
17. Molybdenum
18. Phosphorus
19. Potassium
20. Sodium

In the evaluation of the effects of black carrot and its major phenolic compounds, in reduced onset of diabetes, researchers at the joint analysis lead by the Indian Institute of Vegetable Research, launched an investigation of molecular interactions of phenolic compounds of black carrot with enzymes involved in glucose metabolism in compared to standard inhibitors in human.

According to vitro assay, black carrot purified extract and the standard inhibitors acarbose and vildagliptin,oral anti-hyperglycemic drugs exerted significant activities in inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4).

α-Amylase, an amylase is an enzyme with function of catalyses the hydrolysis of starch into sugars.

Alpha-glucosidase is a glucosidase with function in breaking down starch and disaccharides to glucose.

And, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors are conventional oral anti-diabetic drugs with function in preventing the digestion of carbohydrates in patient with type 2 diabetes.

Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4), a serine exopeptidase has a strong implication to the onset of type 2 diabetes with function in regulation of the biological activity of hormones and chemokines, such as glucagon-like peptide-1, an incretin hormone nwhich has a significant impact in glucose-dependent insulin secretion and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide with an unique function on insulin and glucagon secretion in humans.

At IC50 value, purified extract of black carrot demonstrated a stronger effect in compared to the standard inhibitor acarbose, the conventional diabetic drug.

According to the docking scores, application of black carrot extract inhibited diabetes through its expression of antioxidant in production of fewer anthocyanin molecules in compared to their respective inhibitors.

Further analysis of the anthocyanin molecules of black carrot, cyanidin 3-xylosyl galactoside researchers discovered that black carrot extract displays a potential drug activities in inhibited enzymes, serine exopeptidase Dipeptidyl peptidase-4(DPP4) similar to those of vildagliptin.

Dr. Karkute SG, the lead scientist, after taking into account of other confounders soad, "Anthocyanins from black carrot were found to be effective to control diabetes" and "Cyaniding 3-xylosyl galactoside (isolated from carrot and wild carrot) is the best potential molecule for inhibiting enzymes involved in glucose metabolism".

In animal model assigned to non-diabetes mellitus (NDM), untreated diabetes mellitus (DM), DM plus L. plantarum NCU116 (NCU), DM plus fermented carrot juice with L. plantarum NCU116 (FCJ), and DM plus non-fermented carrotjuice (NFCJ) for evaluati thon of the effect of carrot juice fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum NCU116 on high-fat and low-dose streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 2 diabetes, researchers once again reaffirmed that

* NCU and FCJ treatment group at for 5 weeks exerted a favorably regulated blood glucose, hormones, and lipid metabolism, accompanied by an increase in short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) in the colon.

Increased short-chain fatty acids in the colon was associated to diabetic amelioration.

Application of NCU and FCJ also exhibits anti diabetes effect in restored the antioxidant capacity and other aspects in regulated the abnormal function in glucose metabolism, including Morphology of

* The pancreas and kidney (morphological changes in the podocyte foot processes in the glomerulus and in microvilli of proximal tubules are an indication of the diabetic kidney. And morphological changes of the pancreas reduced size and numbers of islet are associated to patients with diabetes)

* mRNA of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, (morphological changes of mRNA of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor reduce the function of LDL in regulation of insulin production).

* Cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), (morphological changes of CYP7A1 reduce function of the host in regulation of bile acid synthesis and dyslipidemia in diabetes)

* Glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4), ( morphological changes of GLUT-4 reduces function of the host in mediated glucose removal.

* Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α), and Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) (morphological changes of PPAR-α and PPAR-γ decrease the essential role of these receptors in lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity).

By observation of black carrot functions in lipid and glucose metabolism through other mechanisms, Dr. Li C, the lead authors suggested, "L. plantarum NCU116 and the fermented carrot juice had the potential ability to ameliorate type 2 diabetes in rats".

Taken together, black carrot and carrot and carrot extracts may be considered as a functional food in  attenuated type 2 diabetes

However, further data collection on studies performed with human consumption during the course of the disease will be necessary to complete the picture of its potential in ameliorated diabetic possibilities.

Intake of supplementation should be taken with especial care in prevention of acute liver toxicity.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrients, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

(1) Anti-diabetic phenolic compounds of black carrot (Daucus carota subspecies sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) inhibit enzymes of glucose metabolism: An in silico and in vitro validation by Karkute SG1, Koley TK2, Yengkhom BK3, Tripathi A2, Srivastava S4, Maurya A2, Singh B(PubMed)
(2) Carrot juice fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum NCU116 ameliorates type 2 diabetes in rats by Li C1, Ding Q, Nie SP, Zhang YS, Xiong T, Xie MY(PubMed)
(3) Comparing olive oil and C4-dietary oil, a prodrug for the GPR119 agonist, 2-oleoyl glycerol, less energy intake of the latter is needed to stimulate incretin hormone secretion in overweight subjects with type 2 diabetes by Mandøe MJ1,2,3, Hansen KB1,2,3, Windeløv JA1,2, Knop FK1,4,5, Rehfeld JF6, Rosenkilde MM7, Holst JJ8,9, Hansen HS(PubMed)
(4) Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (CD26): knowing the function before inhibiting the enzyme by Matteucci E1, Giampietro O.(PubMed)
(5) Glucose lowering strategies and cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes - teachings from the TOSCA.IT study by Vaccaro O1, Masulli M2, Riccardi G(PubMed)
(6) Imaging of the Corneal Subbasal Whorl-like Nerve Plexus: More Accurate Depiction of the Extent of Corneal Nerve Damage in Patients With Diabetes by Utsunomiya T1, Nagaoka T1, Hanada K2, Omae T1, Yokota H1, Abiko A3, Haneda M3, Yoshida A(PubMed)
(7) Urine Proteome Specific for Eye Damage Can Predict Kidney Damage in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Case-Control and a 5.3-Year Prospective Cohort Study by Yang JK1, Wang YY2, Liu C2, Shi TT2, Lu J2, Cao X2, Yang FY2, Feng JP2, Chen C3, Ji LN4, Xu A(PubMed)
(8) Reconstructive vascular surgery and the extent of tissue damage due to diabetic foot ulcers relates to risk of new ulceration in patients with PAD by Elgzyri T1, Larsson J2,(PubMed)
(9) Comparative Genomic, MicroRNA, and Tissue Analyses Reveal Subtle Differences between Non-Diabetic and Diabetic Foot Skin by Ramirez HA1, Liang L2, Pastar I2, Rosa AM2, Stojadinovic O2, Zwick TG3, Kirsner RS4, Maione AG5, Garlick JA5, Tomic-Canic M(PubMed)

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