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Sunday, 5 July 2015

The Holistic Prevention, Management and Treatment of PCOs analysed through Conventional Medicine Research and Studies(Part V) - The TCM approach

"The Holistic Prevention, Management and Treatment of PCOs analysed through Conventional Medicine Research and Studies" provides you the accurate information of the use of natural sources to prevent, management and treatment of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome, because all presentations are proven through convention research and studies found in PubMed. This is the second time, a research paper has been written this way to general public that you will not find any where in the net. We would like to provide more of this kind the research, but unfortunately, it is time consuming and burdened financially, we have run out of time and the site will be shut down Monday(July 6, 2015). If you like what you read, please donate generously to our site.
at http://kylejnorton.blogspot.ca/
Kyle J. Norton


Traditional Chinese Medicine Perspective in Management  and Treatment of PCOs (Unedited)

While conventional medicine use synthetic medication to induce ovulation and assisted artificial insemination if the medicine fail, traditional Chinese medicine views polycystic ovarian syndrome in different approaches.
Polycystic ovary syndrome, according to traditional Chinese medicine is a medical condition characterized by accumulative of fluid over a prolonged period of time causes of dampness and phlegms(247a)(247b) build up on the ovaries due to the effects of vary differentiations, affecting not only the women’s menstrual cycle, but also ovulation and fertility(1247a)(247b).

Symptoms 
According to statistic, most common symptoms of Chinese women with PCOs in traditional Chinese medicine include(1247)
1. Abdomen pain before menstrual onset
2. Obfuscation color
3. Cold lower abdomen
4. Insomnia
5. Fatigue
6. Eyes dark, face dark or ring lip dark, before and after menstruation 
7. Chest tightness
8. Irritability
9. Depression
10. Lower abdomen pain during menstruation
11. Breast swelling
12. Etc.

Differentiation
Depending to differentiation of the diseases, PCOs according to TCM can be classified onto
A. General syndrome
1. Kidney deficiency syndrome(1246)
2. Stagnation of Qi and blood stasis(1246)
3. Dampness heat of liver(1246)(1248)
4. Stagnation of phlegm dampness syndrome(1246)
B. Single or combination syndrome
4. Kidney Yang deficiency and blood stasis(1247)
5. Kidney Yang deficiency (1247)(1248)
6. Kidney Yin deficiency and blood stasis(1147)
7. Kidney Yin deficiency and liver Qi stagnation syndrome(1247)
8. Kidney Yang deficiency and phlegm dampness stagnation(1247)
9. Kidney Yin deficiency(147)(1248)
10. Spleen-Yang deficiency (SYD)(1248)

The Dietary Suggestion, Life Style Modification and Nutritional Supplements according to TCM


  According to Angela Warburton(1249), a doctor of Traditional Chinese Medicine practising in Toronto, Canada, incorporating the proper dietary and lifestyle modifications, may make a BIG difference in the long-term for treatment of PCOs.


The Dietary Suggestion according to TCM

1. Eat foods low on the Glycemic Index (GI) 
such as vegetables and whole grains to improve insulin sensitivity(1250), quality of life(1253)and avoid some long-term health risks of endometrial cancer(1252) as many women with PCOS are not achieving dietary intakes and levels of physical activity(1251)

2. Women with PCOS should completely avoid refined carbohydrates as it showed to elevate the risk of type 2 diabetes(1254) induced collection of metabolic defects including peripheral insulin resistance(1255), elevated hepatic glucose output, and impaired pancreatic insulin secretion(1254), immune-mediated diseases(1256), such as reduced control of infection, increased rates of cancer, and  increased risk for allergic and auto-inflammatory disease(1256) and inflammation(1255).

3. Keep blood sugar stable by eating regularly with small meal(1258), including good fat, such as monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids(1259) and protein(1261). According to Diabetes Center, Eulji Hospital, in the differentiation of a meal plan using rice bowls of varying sizes, showed that small rice bowl-based meal plan was effective at reducing dietary energy intake (EI), body weight (BW), and blood glucose levels in comparison to regular rice bowl-based meal plan(1257).
Indeed,  high monounsaturated fat hypocaloric diet) or high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diet has shown to improve total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, insulin and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance(HOMA-R) levels(1260).

4. Eating vegetables daily as including vegetables in rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat dairy products and low in saturated fats have shown to improve insulin resistance, serum hs-CRP levels, and abdominal fat accumulation(1262). Leafy greens, such as kale, broccoli, collard greens, bok choy, cabbage, rapine, etc.. process the ability in modulation liver fatty acid composition(1263) of which promotes glucose(1264). hormone(1265) regulation and lipids(1264) homeostasis of metabolic dysfunction(1264) probably through the effects of its phyotchemical indole-3 carbinol(1266)(1267)(1268). Intake of legumes such as black beans, adzuki beans, mung beans, black-eyed peas etc., also contribute to beneficial effects of  on metabolic features, such as insulin resistance(1269), glycated haemoglobin, triglycerides, and total and HDL cholestero(1270). According to Complementary and Alternative Healing University, adzuki bean displays a diuretic property, can beneficiary for draining ‘dampness’ from the body.(1271).

6. Eat organic meats only
Grass-fed and grain-fed cattle have shown to significantly improve the fatty acid (FA) composition(1273)(1274) and antioxidant content of beef(1273). According to Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Pig feeds rich in rapeseed products contains high concentration of EPA, DPA, and DHA of which have shown to benefit to over health for the consumer(1272).

7. Intake of berries has shown to contribute to beneficial metabolic effects in preventing obesity(1275) and related disorders(1275)(1278)(1279), such as ameliorating total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol(1276), hyperglycemia(1277) and insulin sensitivity(1277), lowering fasting insulin level(1275),......

8. Intake cinnamon daily can improve insulin resistance and PCOs related metabolic syndrome
(See the Insulin resistance improvement and/or anti metabolic syndrome herb: Cinnamon for more information)
[Cinnamon is a spice derived from the inner bark of tree, native to South East Asia, of over 300 species of the genus Cinnamomum, belongings to the family Lauraceae used in herbal and traditional medicine as anti-microbial agent(1087) and to improve reproductive organs(1088), prevent flatulence(1089) and menstrual cramping(1087), treat gastrointestinal complaints(1089), diarrhea(1087), bad breath(1090), headache(1087), etc.(1086)(1087).
Ingredients(1087)
1. Cinnamic aldehyde
2.Cinnamyl acetate
3. Eugenol
4. Aldehyde
5. Pinene
6. Coumarins
7. Cinnzeylanol
8. Cinnzeylanine
9. Safrol
10. Methylhydroxy chalcone polymer (MHCP)

Epidemiological studies suggested that cinnamon consists a significant anti insulin resistance(1091)(1092)(1094) and anti metabolic syndrome(1093)(1094)(1095)(1096)(1097) properties, such as lowering total cholesterol(1093), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(1093) and improving high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(1093), may be due to its antihyperglycaemic (1091)(1093) and potential to reduce postprandial blood glucose levels(1091)(1092), liver fat(1098) and and improved glucose homeostasis(1098) properties, by regulating the mechanisms of-medicated glucose and lipid metabolism(1099), such as decreased the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokine(TNF-alpha) in adipose tissue(1100) and upregulated mRNA expression of insulin-regulated membrane trafficking(1100) and whole body glucose homeostasi(GLUT-4) in skeletal muscle(1100)].

9. Adding bitter Melon and fenugreek into your diet
Epidemiological studies suggested that bitter melon displays a modest hypoglycemic effect(1280)(1281)(1283)and anti related complications in metabolic syndrome(1281)(1282).
Fenugreek not only showed to promote sexual arousal and desire in women, probably through its regulationj of total and free testosterone and other hormone(1284) but also exhibited hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic effects in in a dose-dependent manner(1285)

10. Insure adequate fiber intake through eating a lots of fresh vegetables and whole grains.
 High-fiber diets, especially of the soluble variety, and soluble fiber supplements has been recommended by several national diabetes associations management of the plasma glucose concentration in individuals with diabetes(1286)(1288) as it offers some improvement in carbohydrate metabolism(1287).

            Life style Modification according to TCM

1. Say good by to Western lifestyle
Western lifestyle characterized by low levels of physical activity, and by an energy-dense diet rich in total and saturated fat and refined carbohydrates(1289) may consist a positive association between risk of breast cancer and subclinical forms of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)(1289) such as  more severe phenotype with regard to insulin insensitivity, increased numbers of antral follicles at midcycle, and decreased circulating luteal phase progesterone levels(1290).

2. Avoid all refined sugars (white and brown sugars, fructose, sucrose, corn syrup) and simple sugars (maple syrup, honey)
Increased consumption of refined dietary sugars not only showed to contribute to a central factor in the rapidly rising rates of obesity(1293) and type 2 diabetes(1291)(1294) but also promoted risk of metabolic syndrome(1291)(1295) such as glucose intolerance(1292) and its complication(1295).
According to study by Dr. Kozlovsky AS and research team, diets high in simple sugars not only stimulates Cr losses and may lead to marginal Cr deficiency associated with impaired glucose and lipid metabolism(1296).

3. Say no refined carbohydrate (white bread, pasta, potatoes, white rice, most breakfast cereals, rice cakes, popcorn, or any starchy, low fiber food) (See dietary supplement 2 for more information)
[2. Women with PCOS should completely avoid refined carbohydrates as it showed to elevate the risk of type 2 diabetes(1254) induced collection of metabolic defects including peripheral insulin resistance(1255), elevated hepatic glucose output, and impaired pancreatic insulin secretion(1254), immune-mediated diseases(1256), such as reduced control of infection, increased rates of cancer, and  increased risk for allergic and auto-inflammatory disease(1256) and inflammation(1255)].

4. Avoid artificial sweeteners
Artificial sweeteners has shown to induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut microbiome(1297)(1298) associated susceptibility to metabolic disease(1297)(1298).

5. Avoid large size in regular meals. Opt for smaller and more regular meals to moderate glucose load and minimize insulin resistance(see Dietary supplement 3. Keep blood sugar stable by eating regularly with small meal for more information)
[3. Keep blood sugar stable by eating regularly with small meal(1258), including good fat, such as monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids(1259) and protein(1261). According to Diabetes Center, Eulji Hospital, in the differentiation of a meal plan using rice bowls of varying sizes, showed that small rice bowl-based meal plan was effective at reducing dietary energy intake (EI), body weight (BW), and blood glucose levels in comparison to regular rice bowl-based meal plan(1257).
Indeed,  high monounsaturated fat hypocaloric diet) or high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diet has shown to mprove total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, insulin and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance(HOMA-R) levels(1260)].

6. Avoid soft drink(soda), sugar-sweetened fruit juice and energy drink
According to the article "An Unintended Consequence Of Diet Soda: Disrupting Friendly Bacteria And Raising Blood Sugar" by Faye Flam, diet Soda due to high content of artificial sweetener may disturb the internal ecosystem and raised blood sugar, thus defeating the purpose of these products by increasing risk for type 2 diabetes and obesity(1299).(See artificial sweetener for more information).
According to participants were 27,585 Japanese men and women aged 40-59 years who had no prior history of diabetes, intakes of soft drink was associated to increased risk of type 2 diabetes(1300).
Sugar-sweetened fruit juice, not 100% fruit juice is associated to risk of incidence of type 2 diabetes, according to 4 studies with a 191,686 participants, including 12,375 with type 2 diabetes(1301).
Energy drink has shown negatively effect the central nervous system induced jitteriness, nervousness, dizziness, the inability to focus, difficulty concentrating, and insomnia(1302) and heightened alertness, altered sleep patterns, arrhythmias and, rarely, seizures(1303).

7. Avoid milk and dairy products (cheese and yogurt)
According to traditional Chinese medicine, milk and dairy products are considered as "very cold and damp foods" in nature, as they can overload the digestive system, inducing production of phlegm, the main cause of PCOs(1304)(1305)(1306). Replacement of cow milk with (unsweetened) almond milk may contribute to many health aspects for women with PCOs. According to researches, almond milk  not only be an efficacious substitute of cow milk in infant with cow-milk allergy/intolerance(1307) but also induces production of probiotics, which have a positive effect on fasting blood sugar(1310) and serum of insulin(1310) in in PCOS patients, through its fermentation stage(1308). According to the University of California at Davis, intake of almonds containing 31 g of total fat per day for 6 weeks had an  beneficial effects on plasma lipids and androgens in PCOS(1309).

8. Moderate exercise (yoga, pilates, walking etc)
(See The General Approaches to prevent the unpreventable?)
[Moderate exercise not only increases blood flow to strengthen the body tissues(274)(275) and organs(276), including the reproductive system but also enhances the immunity(277) in fighting against inflammatory process(277)(278) due to irregular cell growth(281)(282) and foreign invasion(279)(280).]
[Yoga is a physical, mental, and spiritual practice in Hinduism, Buddhism.
According to studies holistic yoga therapy showed a significant effects in reducing anti-müllerian hormone (AMH-primary outcome), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, hirsutism,  and improving menstrual frequency, glucose, lipid, and insulin values(284) with non significant changes in body weight, FSH, and prolactin in adolescent PCOS(283).]
In metabolic syndrome, a constellation of metabolic abnormalities, such as abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, an atherogenic dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, a prothrombotic profile, and inflammation(1311), physical exercise has shown to improve the lipid profile(1312). insulin resistance (IR)(1312) in obese boy and, bodyweight(1313), atherogenic lipid profiles(1313), insulin resistance(1313),blood pressure(1313) and anthropometric factors(1313) if used conjunction with standard diet therapy in Japanese population.

9. Lose some weight
Obsesity and particularly visceral fat excess in PCOs women have shown to involve stimulating ovarian androgen(1315) induced alternation of  ovarian physiology(1314)(1315) associated  with ovulatory disturbances(1314)(1315) and negative effects on the endometrium(1314) in contribution to fertility(1314), implantation failure(1314) and miscarriage(1314).
(Read more information of benefits of weight loss for women with PCOs in the section PCOs in weight loss perspective)

10. Protect your Liver
 Liver diseases such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) associated to 41% increased risk in women with PCOs(1320), is tightly associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome induced physiopathology of fibrosis development and progression(1316) affecting the liver function not only in blood storing and formation(1318) and but also liver in transportation of blood and fluid to kidney and heart in fluid and blood distribution to our body(1318) and liver metabolism(carbohydrate metabolism (glycolysis and glycogen synthesis) and triglyceride synthesis (lipogenesis))(1319) in regulating insulin resistance associated with excessive fat accumulation in ectopic tissues, inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum stress(1317).
Vitamin B complex has shown to exhibit hepatoprotective effect(1321) through inhibition of lipid metabolic disorder)1321), oxidative damage(1321)(1322) and nitrosative stress(1322).
According to Auburn University, consumption of green leafy vegetables (GLVs) may reduce the risks associated with cardiovascular(1323) and liver diseases(1324) such as hepatocellular carcinoma(1324) through modulate liver fatty acid composition(1323).
Liver disharmony can contribute emotional depression(1318)(1324), exacerbating the psychological symptoms in women with PCOs(1325). 

11. Weekly acupuncture
Suggestions of acupuncture for treatment of PCOs symptoms have been well established(1326)(1329)(1328), but larger example size and multi center studies are necessary to provide more reliable and valid scientific evidence(1336). Dr. Ren LN and research team said "acupuncture combined with Chinese herbal medicines or with moxibustion treatment have advantages in reducing serum luteinizing hormone/follicle-stimulating hormone (LH/FSH), insulin resistance (IR), testosterone (T), and body mass index (BMI)"(1327). Acupuncture has also shown to regulate menstrual dysfunction and induce ovulation in women with PCOs(1330).
In fact, acupuncture also lowers perceived stress at the time of embryo transfer for an improved pregnancy rate(1331), significantly reduce pain intensity and analgesic consumption during oocyte aspiration in IVF treatment(1332), occurrence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) in vitro fertilization and embryo transplantation(1333).....Combined with clomiphene, acupuncture effectively improves HCG day cervical mucus, endometrial thickness and morphology for a normal pregnancy(1334). The study by University of Adelaide preliminary data, suggested that acupuncture improves self-efficacy and psychological coping for women experiencing delays with falling pregnant(1335).


          Nutritional Supplements according to TCM


1. Chlorophyll(Best for syndrome of Stagnation of Qi and blood stasis(1246) and Dampness heat of liver PCOs patients)
Chlorophyll, a water plant has been conferred to a wide range of health benefits, including anti cancers(1337)(1338), immune-modulating(1339), improve anemia(1341), anti hypoxia(1342), antioxidant(1343)(1340), anti inflammation(1344)(1345), etc. According to Lund University, thylakoids, a chlorophyll-containing membranes in chloroplasts may constitute to weight loss over time, through its efforts in reduced food intake and prevented compensational eating later in the day(1345) and  hypoglycaemia induced weight gain in overweight women(1345). "Chlorophyll  processed a property in detoxification of the liver"(1346)(1347), according to Dr. Janet starr Hull of alternative health and nutrition said, of which improve liver function in cabohydrate and lipid metabolism.(see protect your liver in life style modification according to TCM for more information)
[Liver diseases such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) associated to 41% increased risk in women with PCOs(1320), is tightly associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome induced physiopathology of fibrosis development and progression(1316) affecting the liver function not only in blood storing and formation(1318) and but also liver in transportation of blood and fluid to kidney and heart in fluid and blood distribution to our body(1318) and liver metabolism(carbohydrate metabolism (glycolysis and glycogen synthesis) and triglyceride synthesis (lipogenesis))(1319) in regulating insulin resistance associated with excessive fat accumulation in ectopic tissues, inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum stress(1317).
Vitamin B complex has shown to exhibit hepatoprotective effect(1321) through inhibition of lipid metabolic disorder)1321), oxidative damage(1321)(1322) and nitrosative stress(1322).
According to Auburn University, consumption of green leafy vegetables (GLVs) may reduce the risks associated with cardiovascular(1323) and liver diseases(1324) such as hepatocellular carcinoma(1324) through modulate liver fatty acid composition(1323).
Liver disharmony can contribute emotional depression(1318)(1324), exacerbating the psychological symptoms in women with PCOs(1325).]

 2. Probiotics (the healthy bacteria found in your intestinal tract)
( Best for PCOs patient diagnosed with spleen yang deficiency(1248))
Foods promote the growth of beneficial bacteria in the intestinal tract include whole grains, onions, bananas, garlic, honey, leeks, artichokes and some fortified foods, excluding milk and mlik products.
(See Avoid milk and dairy products (cheese and yogurt) in lyle style modification according to TCM for more information)
[According to traditional Chinese medicine, milk and dairy products are considered as "very cold and damp foods" in nature, as they can overload the digestive system, inducing production of phlegm, the main cause of PCOs(1304)(1305)(1306). Replacement of cow milk with (unsweetened) almond milk may contribute to many health aspects for women with PCOs. According to researches, almond milk  not only be an efficacious substitute of cow milk in infant with cow-milk allergy/intolerance(1307) but also induces production of probiotics, which have a positive effect on fasting blood sugar(1310) and serum of insulin(1310) in in PCOS patients, through its fermentation stage(1308). According to the University of California at Davis, intake of almonds containing 31 g of total fat per day for 6 weeks had an  beneficial effects on plasma lipids and androgens in PCOS(1309)].
According to studies, probiotics has shown to contrinute to many health aspects, including anti gastrointestinal diseases(1354)(1355)(1356) anti antibiotic(1348)(1349), anti antibiotic resistance(1350)(1351), improved immune(1352)(1353), anti diabetic(1357)(1358), anti obese(1359)(1360), anti metablic dysfunctional,(1361)(1362), antioxidant(1363), anti inflammatory(1364)(1365), anti cancerous(1366)(1367), anti infective activities, etc. According to Isfahan University and Isfahan  University of Medical Sciences, Probiotics also processes significantly improve serum insulin levels,among 72 women aged 15-40 years old diagnosed with PCOS in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial(1370).

3. Cinnamon
( Best for PCOs patient diagnosed with spleen yang deficiency(1248) and kidney yang deficiency(1247)(1248))
(See the Insulin resistance improvement and/or anti metabolic syndrome herb: Cinnamon for more information)
[Cinnamon is a spice derived from the inner bark of tree, native to South East Asia, of over 300 species of the genus Cinnamomum, belongings to the familyLauraceae used in herbal and traditional medicine as anti-microbial agent(1087) and to improve reproductive organs(1088), prevent flatulence(1089) and menstrual cramping(1087), treat gastrointestinal complaints(1089), diarrhea(1087), bad breath(1090), headache(1087), etc.(1086)(1087).

Nutritional ingredients(1087)
1. Cinnamic aldehyde
2.Cinnamyl acetate
3. Eugenol
4. Aldehyde
5. Pinene
6. Coumarins
7. Cinnzeylanol
8. Cinnzeylanine
9. Safrol
10. Methylhydroxy chalcone polymer (MHCP) Epidemiological studies suggested that cinnamon consist a significant anti insulin resistance(1091)(1092)(1094) and anti metabolic syndrome(1093)(1094)(1095)(1096)(1097) properties, such as lowering total cholesterol(1093), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(1093) and improving high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(1093), may be due to its antihyperglycaemic (1091)(1093) and potential to reduce postprandial blood glucose levels(1091)(1092), liver fat(1098) and and improved glucose homeostasis(1098) properties, by regulating the mechanisms of-medicated glucose and lipid metabolism(1099), such as decreased the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokine(TNF-alpha) in adipose tissue(1100) and upregulated mRNA expression of insulin-regulated membrane trafficking(1100) and whole body glucose homeostasi(GLUT-4) in skeletal muscle(1100)].

4. Flaxseed oil 
(Best for PCOs patient diagnosed with kidney yin deficiency(1247)(1248))
Flaxseed oil is extracted from the seeds of the flax plant (Linum usitatissimum) contained both omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. Flaxseed oil generally contains 50% of the omega-3 fatty acid - alpha-linolenic acid and 25 % of the omega-6 fatty acid linolenic acid, 15 % of mainly monounsaturated oleic acid and trace amounts of palmitoleic acid and eicosenoic acid(1371).

Nutritional ingredients
1. Alpha-linolenic acid (
ALA)
2. Palmitic acid
3. Stearic acid
4. Arachidic acid
5. Palmitoleic acid
6. Oleic acid
7. Eicosenoic acid
8. Linoleic acid
9. Etc.(1371)

Epidemiological studies of health benefit are well established, including reduced blood pressure(1372)
(1373) and cholesterol(1374)(1375), risk of irregular cell growth(1376)(1377), diabetes(1378)(1379) and osteoporosis(1380)(1381), benefit cardiovascular system(1382)(1383), menopause symptoms(1384)(1385), cyclic mastalgia (breast pain)(1390), patients with Sjogren’s syndrome(1386) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD(1387)(1388), use of natural laxative(1389)(1390),  human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS)(1390), etc., probably due to  the the efficacy of alpha-linoleic acid(1390) and its antioxidant(1391)(1392)(1393)(1394) and anti inflammatory(1392)(1395)(1396) activity.
Recent studies also suggested that flax seed oil processes anti insulin resistance(1397)(1398) and metabolic syndrome(1400)(1401), confers health benefits in obesity(1400) due to its effect on adipocyte function(1399) activities due to the effects of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)(1400)(1401).

5. Navy bean (White kidney bean)extract  
(Best for PCOs patient diagnosed with kidney yin deficiency(1247)(1248))
The small, white kidney bean, also called pea bean or haricot, popular in both dry and green forms, is very popular in Britain and the US, native to Peru. It is now grown and consumed across the world, due to their numerous health benefits(1402).

Nutritional ingredients
1. Carbohydrate
2. Protein
3. Dietary fiber
4. Vitamin A
5. Vitamin B1
6. copper
7. Iron
8. Manganese
9. Phosphorus
10. Magnesium(1402)
11. Catechin derivatives(1403)  
12. Proanthocyanidins(1403)
13. Catechin glucoside(1403)
14. Etc.
 
Epidemiological studies, linking navy bean as a functional health foods, may be due to its phenolic composition in reduced the incidence of several chronic diseases(1402)(1411) that shared an inflammatory component(1403), including irregular cell growth(1406)(1407), diabetes(1402)(1407), CVD(1407), glycemic response(1404)(1405)(1407), aid digestion(1404)(1405), sleep disorder(1402), irritable bowel syndrome(1402) and constipation(1402), infertility(1402), neurotransmitter dysfunction(1402), colitis(1408), improved colon health(1408)(1409). etc. probably through its total phenolic content effects on antioxidant(1410)(1411) and anti inflammatory activities(1411) and other mechanism.
According to studies, white kidney bean also processes certain properties against PCOs related syndrome including effect on diabesity, a collection of obesity/overweight, type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance(1412), GI index(1413) through its carb blockers(1413) mimiced the beneficial effects of fibers(1412). Its extract, according to studies, also induced blood glucose levels(1415) and weight loss(1414)(1415) through blocking carbohydrate absorption(1414), and regulating hoglycaemic and anorexigenic activities of an alpha-amylase inhibitor(1415).

6. Micro nutrient supplements
6.1. B Vitamins
[Vitamin B1 (thiamine), Vitamin B2 (riboflavin), Vitamin B3 (niacin or nicotinic acid), Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid), Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine), Vitamin B7 (biotin), Vitamin B9 (folic acid) and Vitamin B12 (various cobalamins; commonly cyanocobalamin or methylcobalamin in vitamin supplements)](1416)

B vitamins, a class of water-soluble vitamins, coexisted in the same foods,play an important role in cell metabolism, found in many foods, includinglegumes (pulses or beans), whole grains, potatoes, bananas, chili peppers, tempeh, nutritional yeast, brewer's yeast, and molasses(1416). According to studies, deficiency of certain members of B vitamins may disrupt cell metabolism, leading to risk of cancers(1417)(1418)(1419)(1420) and metabolic syndrome(1428).
a. Vitamin B1 (thiamine)
Deficiency of vitamin B1 may contribute to dyslipidemia(1421)(1427) and induce vascular complications in clinical diabetes(1421)(1422)(1423), metabolic defect(1424), cardiovascular diseases(1245), hypertension(1426), insulin resistance(1427), etc....

b. Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)
Deficiency of vitamin B2 has shown to decrease immune efficiency(1429)(1430) and anti oxidant status(1429), induce abnormal blood glucose level(1431), migraine(1432)(1433), various skin diseases(1434), hypertension(1435), hyperlipidemia(1436), etc...

c. Vitamin B3 (niacin or nicotinic acid)
Deficiency of vitamin B3 may contribute to low-grade chronic inflammation (metaflammation)(1437), reduce the effects on metabolic regulation(1437), including type 2 diabetes(1437), obesity(1437), and cardiovascular disease(1437), pigmentary disorders(1438) and acne(1438), etc....

d. Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid)
Deficiency of vitamin B5 has shown to induce acne vulgaris(1439), hypertension(1440)(1441), a decrease in total antioxidant status(1442), insulin sensitive(1443), reduced diabetic cardiovascular function and cardiac performance(1444), etc...

e. Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine)
Deficiency of vitamin B6 may display sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy(a decreased ability to move or feel (sensation) due to nerve damage)(1445), hyperhomocysteinemia, a possible risk factor of morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease(1446), abnormal glucose levels(1431), endothelial dysfunction(1447), diabetes(1447) and inflammation(1447), reduce sympathetic activity and insulin-response, etc...

f. Vitamin B7 (biotin)
Deficiency of vitamin B7 has shown to contribute to genetic instability causes of DNA damage(1448) inducing cancers(1449) and a risk a factor in some neurodegenerative diseases(1449)m diffuse hair loss(1450), periorificial or acral dermatitis(1451), insulin sensitivity(1452) and glucose uptake(1452), risk of diabetes(1452), etc...

g. Vitamin B9 (folic acid)
Folic acid has shown to process the property in reduced risk of endothelial dysfunction(1457), CHD(1453) and CVD(1454)(1455), produced blood cells,(1456) secured cell division(1456), and growth(1456), improved antioxidant stasis(1458), lowered risk of diabetes(1459), etc,... Folic acid deficiency may induce risk of early onset of diabetes(1460), metabolic syndrome associated with increased risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease(1460), depressed cell-mediated immunity(1461).

h. Vitamin B12 (various cobalamins; commonly cyanocobalamin or methylcobalamin in vitamin supplements)
Epidemiological studies suggestion that vitamin B12 exhibits anti insulin resistance(1465) and endothelial dysfunction(1465), depression(1468)(1469) effects, etc,... Deficiency of vitamin B12 induced risk of neurocognitive disorders(1462)(1463), and decline(1462), obesity and overweight(1464), altered lipid profile in the prediction of metabolic risk(1466), cardiovascular disease associated to hyperhomocysteinemia(1467).

6.2. Magnesium
Magnesium, a micro nutrient and trace mineral found abundantly in spices, nuts, cereals, cocoa and vegetables such as spinach. Today approximately 5% - 15% of world population are found to have low level of serum ofMg(1470), probably due to reduced dietary magnesium intake associated to food refining and modern fertilizers that contain no magnesium(1471). In US, 68% of population are found to have dietary intake of Mg below recommend levels(1472).
Deficiency of Magnesium may cause learning and memory deficiency(1473), reduced metabolisms(1474)(1475)(1476), hormone imbalance(1476), altered the gut microbiota(1477) in the digestive system and anxiety(1477)(1478), sleep disorders(1479)(1480), coronary artery vasospasm(1481),arrhythmias(1481)(1490), ischemic damage(1481) and cardiac failure(1481), etc....

Epidemiological studies suggested that magnesium also exhibits anti cancer(1500)(1501)(1502) anti metabolic syndrome(1482(1485)(1484) effects such as hypertension(1483)(1487), obesity(1486)(1487), elevated fasting plasma glucose(1488)(1489), high serum triglycerides(1488)(1491), and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels(1488)(1490), etc,... and reduces risk insulin resistance(1482)(1484)(1490), cardiovascular disease(1482) and diabetes(1483)(1484), migraine headache(1492)(1493)(1495), premenstrual syndrome(1494)(1495), depression(1478)(1496), stress(1497)(1498), etc,... of which may be helpful for management and treatment of women with PCOs.

6.3. Chromium
Chromium, a micro nutrient and trace mineral, found abundantly in whole grain products and certain fruits and vegetables such as broccoli, potatoes, grape juice, and oranges, and lean meats, poultry, fish, beans, eggs, and nuts,(1504) plays an important in the metabolism and storage of fats, carbohydrates and protein in the body(1503).
The US dietary guidelines for adequate daily chromium intake were lowered in 2001 from 50–200 µg for an adult to 30–35 µg (adult male) and to 20–25 µg (adult female), according to Journal of academic of nutrition and dietetics(1505).
Chronic chromium deficiency may cause symptoms of severely impaired glucose tolerance(1506)(1507), weight loss(1506)(1508), and a metabolic encephalopathylike confusional state(1506), induce risk of prediabetes(1509)in predicted diabetes(1509)(1510)(1513) and atherosclerosis(1510),...

Strong evidences from epidemiological studies suggested that chromium exhibits anti metabolic syndrome(1511)(1514)(1515) and cardiovascular disease(1511)(1512)(1513) including hypertension(1516)(1517), obesity(1518)(1519), elevated fasting plasma glucose(1520)(1521), high serum triglycerides(1522)(1523), and dyslipidaemia(1510)(1521), etc,, , anti insulin resistance(1510)(1519), anti depression, anti diabetes(1513)(1512), etc,.... effects.

6.4. Lipoic acid (LA)
Lipoic acid, also known as alpha lipoic acid(ALA), an organosulfur compound derived from octanoic acid, play an essential for aerobic metabolism to turnnutrients into energy and remove wastes through cellular respiration(1524),found abundantly in spinach, broccoli, yams, potatoes, yeast, tomatoes, Brussels sprouts, carrots, beets, rice bran, especially in organic red meat, etc,....... The supplement has shown to be effective in ameliorate blood glucose(1531)(1532) through reduced suppression of insulin expression in β-cell(1535), reduced nerve damage induced diabetes(1533)(1534), neurodegeneration disease(1558)(1559), skin aging(1560)(1561), improved antioxidant(1527)(1528)(1530), anti inflammatory(1526)(1528) and immune status(1525)(1526)(1527)(1528), reduced symptoms of vitamin E deficiency(1529), etc,....

According to studies, LA also processes anti cancer(1570)(1571)(1572), antiinsulin sensitivity(1532)(1564), and anti metabolic syndrome(1532)(1563)(1562), such as hypertension(1564)(1565), obesity(1566)(1567), elevated fasting plasma glucose(1568)(1569) and dyslipidaemia(1556)(1557), etc,... effects of which may contribute to management and treatment of women with PCOs, depending to differentiation.

PCOs Treatment according traditional Chinese medicine

Depending to differentiation, most common diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome can be classified into

                 Kidney yang deficiency

Along with common symptoms mentioned above, women with PCOs diagnosed with kidney yang deficiency may also experience yang vacuity induced cold expressive syndrome, including
lumbago, cold limbs, fatigue, cold aversion, feverish sensation in chest, palms and soles(1573),
difficulty in urination, enuresis, incontinence, declining libido and edema(1574) as a result of kidneys no longer perform their function in store fluid to moister and warm the body for healthy function in the body's organs and tissues, inducing adrenal insufficient chronic lower back pain(1575)(1580), depression(1575), hypothyroidism(1579)(1575), nephritis(1578)(1575), ...(1575), leading to failure in transform damp heat expression, promoted accentuation of inflammatory development of phlegm(1583).
Kidney yang deficiency has shown to alter carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms (free fatty acids, 1-monolinoleoylglycerol, and cholesterol), gut microbiota metabolism (indole-3-propionic acid), indued anovulatory infertility( 1581) and hypertension(1582) of which related to symptoms of PCOs(1576)(1577).


Spleen Yang Deficiency

Spleen yang deficiency is a serve form of spleen qi deficiency, characterized by a condition of inability of spleen in distribution of fluid and nutrient to the body organs, in removal and descend the turbids(2072), causing malfunctions functions of the organs and fluid retention. Prolong period of spleen yang deficiency may induce the development of phlegm, including women with PCOs.
Women with PCOs diagnosed by spleen yang deficiency may also experience yang vacuity impelled cold expression of additional symptoms of abdominal pain(2074), lack of appetite(2076), fatigue(2075), lightheadedness(2075) and headache(2075), weakness of the four limbs(2077), diarrhea(2073)(2076), chilliness(2077), edema(2074), pale, swollen, wet tongue(2076) and weak, slow, deep pulse(2072),....
In the review of the Data base provided by PubMed, spleen qi deficiency may alter certain metabolic pathways, such as the energy, protein, and glycolytic metabolisms(2078), body weight and motor behavior(2079), skeletal muscle function(3080), blood glucose, lipid metabolism and fat-islet axie.(2081),.....

  Liver Qi and Blood stagnation

According to traditional Chinese medicine, the function of liver is to maintain the flow of qi and moisterize the body organs and formation, transportation and storage of blood. Liver blood stagnation may be resulted of prolong period of liver qi stasis, if qi is stasis it can not move blood.
Women with PCOs diagnosed with syndrome of liver qi and blood stagnation may experience additional symptoms, beside of those mentioned above, including premenstrual syndrome(2327), delay menstrual cycle(2331), irregular periods(2331), haemorrhages(2333), depression(2326)(2332), anxiety(2326), abdomen pain before menstrual onset(2332), obfuscation colour(2332), cold lower abdomen(2332), insomnia(2332), fatigue(2332), eyes dark(2332), face dark or ring lip dark(2332), before and after menstruation breast swelling(2332)(2326), chest tightness(2332), irritable insomnia(2332), lower abdomen pain during menstruation(2332),........
According to the data base of PubMed, liver qi and blood stagnation may alter reproductive hormones production(2330), leading ovarian hyper-stimulation (COH) and in the process of ovarian hyper-stimulation(2328), ovulatory disorder infertility(2329),......


Foods for kidney yang, Spleen yang deficiency and Liver  qi stagnation, according to TCM

Kidney yang and spleen deficiency and liver qi stagnation can be managed and treated in part with a diet of fresh and cooked warming foods.

1, Garlic
Garlic (Allium sativum) is a species in the onion genus, belonging to family Amaryllidaceae, native to central Asia. It has been used popularly in traditional and Chinese medicine in treating common cold(1587)(1588) and flu(1589)(1590), blood pressure(1591)(1592), cholesterol levels(1593)(1594), natural antibiotic(1595)(1596), cancers(1597)(1598)(1599) etc....(1585).
According to traditional Chinese medicine, the acrid, warm herbal da suan expresses its tonification of yang through enhancing function of large intestine, lung, spleen, stomach channels(1586).

Chemical constituents(1586)
1. Allyl methyl sulfide
2. Diallyl sulfide
3. 6-methyl-1-thio-2
4. 4-cyclohexadiene
5. Dimethyl sulfide
6. Divinyl sulfide
7. Dimethyl disulfide
8. Allyl methyl disulfide
9. Dithiocyclopentene
10. 5-methyl-1
11. 2-dithio-3-cyclopentene
12. Allyl propyl disulfide
13. 2-dithio-3-cyclopentene
14. 4-methyl-1
15. 3-vinyl-1
16. 2-dithio-4-cyclohexene
17. 3-vinyl-1
18. 2-dithio-5 cyclohexene
19. Cysteine,
20. Histidine
21. Lysine
22. Etc.

Epidemiological literature suggested that garlic also displays anti metabolic syndrome(1602)(1603), including obesity(16000)(1601), elevated blood pressure(1591)(1592), elevated fasting plasma glucose(1604)(1605), high serum triglycerides(1604)(1602), and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL)(1593)(1594)(1604) levels, insulin resistance(1606)(1607), proinflammation(1609)(1608) and renal damage(1610)(1611), reduced risk of cardiovascular disease(1612)(1613) and diabetes, probably through its effects on carbohydrate and lipid(1601) modulation via anti inflammatory(1606) and antioxidant(1603)(1606) mechanisms. All these factors may be the reasons of which garlic was recommended by modern traditional Chinese medicine doctors for management and treatment of PCOs' women who were diagnosed with kidney yang deficiency.

2. Ginger(1616)
Jiang is also known as Ginger root. The acrid and warm herb has been use in TCM as an anti inflammation(1618)(1619)(1620), anti coagulation of platelets(1621)and anti thrombotic(1622), anti allergy(1625)(1626), anti tumors(1627)(1628) and anti hair growth(1629)(1630) lower back painpain(1623)(1624), functional bowel disorders (FBD(1631), etc., as it warms the middle burner and lungs, rescues yang, transforms phlegm by enhancing the functions of lung, spleen and stomach channels(1617).

Chemical constituents
1. 2-heptanol
2. 1,3,3-trimethyltricyclo[2,2,1,0] heptane
3. Tricycline
4. β-fenchene
5. β-pinene
6. 5-hepten-2-one-6-mehtyl
7. Myrcene
8. Octanal
9. α-thujene
10. Zingiberol
11. Zingiberene
12. α-curcumene
13. linalool
14. Cineole
15. Phellandrene
16. Camphene
17. Etc.(1617)

Strong evidences from epidemiological literature suggested that ginger also consist the properties of anti obesity(1632)(1636), anti insulin resistance(1632)01636), anti (1634)(1636), anti dyslipidaemia(1634)(1636), anti diabetes(1635)(1637) and reduced risk the metabolic syndrome causes of cardiovascular complications(1634), etc,....
Its major chemical component, [6]-gingerol analogue (6G), and extracts in rat study exhibited the protective effect against the development of metabolicsyndrome(1633)(1636), through significantly reduced body weight gain(1633)(1636), fat accumulation(1633)(1636), and circulating levels of insulin(1636)(1633) and leptin(1633).
Through its warm in nature and effects on metabolic syndrome, ginger is recommended to the daily diet of PCOs' women diagnosed with kidney yang deficiency by traditional Chinese medicine.

3. Walnut
Walnut, nut of tree, including Brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts (filberts), macadamia nuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios, etc,.. is the genus Juglans belongings to the family Juglandaceae, used in traditional medicine to sooth skin(1647)(1650), and to treat toothache(1648), rheumatism(1648), fungal infections(1648)., anti neuro-aging(1649), allergic dermatitis(1651), etc,... Its bark is also claim to promote blood purifying(1652), anticancer(1652), depurative(1652), diuretic(1652) and laxative(1652) activities, according to Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard University).

Phytochemical constituents
1. Ferulic acid
2. Vanillic acid
3. Coumaric acid
4. Syringic acid
5. Myricetin
6. Regiolon
7. Ellagic
8. Gallic acid
9. Alpha-linoleic acid (ALA)
10. Arginine
11. Histidine
12. Isoleucine
13. Leucine
14. Lysine
15. Methionine
16. Phenylanine
17. Threonine
18. Tryptophan
19. Valine
20. Etc. (1638).

Consumption of walnuts and other nuts have been found to be associated with reduced risk of metabolic syndrome, including lowered total cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels(1639), probably through its effects related to inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial function(1639), enhanced weight loss(1640), increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels(1640), reduced systolic blood pressure(1641) and fasting blood sugar (FBS)(1642), etc,.. and its complications including diabetes(1643)(1644) and cardiovascular disease(1645)(1646).


4. Royal jelly
Royal jelly is produced by the worker bees and fed to bee larves for 3 days to stimulate healthy and radpid growth and life for the queen to ensure the endless production of eggs, used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat malnutrition in children(1653), cognitive decline(1654) and sarcopenia due to ageing(1655), leukopenia(1656), liver diseases(1657)(1658)(1659), ulcer(1660)(1661), bronchial asthma(1662)(1663), diabetes(1664)(1665), high blood pressure(1666)(1667), cognitive impairment(1668), functional uterine abnormality(1669) through its estrogenic activitie(1670), irregular menses(1571) and functional infertility(1672) by enhancing function of spleen, liver and kidney channels(1653).

Chemical constituent(1653)
1. Inositol
2. 6-Biopterin
3. Flavin adenine dinucleotide
4. Flavin mononucleotide
5. Kynurenine
6. Albumin
7. β and γ globulin
8. Insoluble protein
9. Acetylcholine
10. Stearin
11. Phospholipid
12. Adenine nucleotides
13. Arginine
14. Aspartic acid
15. Glutamic acid
16. Lysine
17. Proline
18. β-alanine
18. Etc.

Epidemiological studies suggested that royal jelly also displays certain metabolic syndrome effects, such as glucose tolerance(1673), anti insulin resistance(1677)(1679), anti hypertension(1677), anti-hypercholesterolemic(1654)(1675) and anti-hyperglycemic(1654)(1678), induced weight loss(1676) and reduced risk of symptoms of fatigue( 1682), depression(1683) and anxiety(1683) and complication, such as diabetes(1678), breast cancer(1684)(1685) through anti-inflammatory(1654), anti-oxidative(1654) and immune defense(1674) activities.
According to joint study by Urmia University and Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, royal jelly also improved reproductive parameters(1680)(1681) such as testicular weight, sperm count, viability, motility, deformity, DNA integrity, chromatin quality, serum testosterone and testicular tissue MDA levels in male diabetic rats(1680).

5. Coriander 
Coriander is an annual herb, genus Coriandrum in the family Apiaceae, native to southern Europe and North Africa to Southwestern Asia. All parts of the plant are edible, but the fresh leaves and the dried seeds are the parts most commonly used in cooking. It has been found to process certain health effects on skin(2083)(2084) and menstrual disorder(2085)(2086)[due to high concentration of carotenoids], oxidative stress(2087)(2088), liver damage(2089)(2090), cognitive degeneration(2091) and degenerative symptoms(2092)(2093)[such as anxiety, depression and memory loss], impairment(2091)(2092), cholesterol(2094)(2095), gastrointestinal disorders(2096)(2097)(2098), hypertension(2096), infection(2099) and inflammation(2098)(2099), anemia(2100), immune respond(2101),...........
.
Phytochemical constituents
1. Monoterpenes
2. α-pinene,limpnene
3. γ- terpinene
4. P-cymene
5. Borneol
6. Citronellol
7. Camphor
8. Peraniol
9. Pyrazine
10. Pyridine
11. Isocoumarins
12. Coriandrin
13. Dihydrocoriandrin
14. Flavonoids,
15. Phenolic acids
16. Sterols(2082).
17. Etc.

Epidemiological studies suggested that coriander may comprise a  strong evidence as the food to be used for treatment of metabolic syndrome(2102) and its complications of diabetes(2102)(2110) and cardiovascular disease(2102) due to its antioxidants(2104)(2106), anti inflammatory(2107)(2108) and immunomodulatory(2109) effects in hypoglycemia(2102)(2103)(2104) and hypolipidemia(2102)(2104)(2105), glucose level(2102), insulin resistance(2102), hypertensive(2096), obesity(2111)....



6. Cinnamon
(See anti insulin resistance and anti metabolic herbal medicine for more detail)
[Cinnamon is a spice derived from the inner bark of tree, native to South East Asia, of over 300 species of the genus Cinnamomum, belongings to the family Lauraceae used in herbal and traditional medicine as anti-microbial agent(1087) and to improve reproductive organs(1088), prevent flatulence(1089) and menstrual cramping(1087), treat gastrointestinal complaints(1089), diarrhea(1087), bad breath(1090), headache(1087), etc.(1086)(1087).

Ingredients(1087)
1. Cinnamic aldehyde
2.Cinnamyl acetate
3. Eugenol
4. Aldehyde
5. Pinene
6. Coumarins
7. Cinnzeylanol
8. Cinnzeylanine
 9. Safrol
10. Methylhydroxy chalcone polymer (MHCP)

Epidemiological studies suggested that cinnamon consist a significant anti insulin resistance(1091)(1092)(1094) and anti metabolic syndrome(1093)(1094)(1095)(1096)(1097) properties, such as lowering total cholesterol(1093), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(1093) and improving high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(1093), may be due to its antihyperglycaemic (1091)(1093) and potential to reduce postprandial blood glucose levels(1091)(1092), liver fat(1098) and and  improved glucose homeostasis(1098) properties, by regulating the mechanisms of-medicated glucose and lipid metabolism(1099), such as decreased the mRNA expression of  inflammatory cytokine(TNF-alpha) in adipose tissue(1100) and upregulated mRNA expression of insulin-regulated membrane trafficking(1100) and whole body glucose homeostasi(GLUT-4) in skeletal muscle(1100)].

Its phytochemical coumarins also are found to process anti heart disease(2112), diabetes(2112)(2013), and high blood pressure(2112) properties through its effect on vary mechanism(2112), including inhibited insulitis, increased pancreatic islet number(2113), enhanced lipolysis of adipocytes in lipid abnormalities(2014).
According to University of Karachi and University of Malaysia, cinnamon cinnamic acid and cinnamaldehyde may be the next potential candidate for treatment of II diabetes, due to their effects on improving glucose tolerance in vivo and stimulating insulin secretion in vitro(2015).
In cardiovascular disease,  according to Dr, Rao PV and Gan SH. cinnamic aldehyde and cinnamic acid, cinnamaldehyde, may be effective for treatment of cardiovascular disease through activation of endothelial cells(2016); blocking activity of thromboxane A2 (TXA2) receptor in inhibition of thromboxane receptor-mediated vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation(2016); reduced hypertension by abridging vascular contractility repesctively(2016)


7. Turmeric
Turmeric is a perennial plant in the genus Curcuma, belonging to the family Zingiberaceae, native to tropical South Asia. The herb has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for its effect on high lipids (2118)(2119), pain(2120)(2121), rheumatoid arthritis inflammation(2122)(2123), periodontitis(2124)(2125),  tumors(2126)(2127)(2128), herpes(2129)(2130), coronary atherosclerosis(2131)(2132), neurodegeneration(2133)(2134), leukemia(2135)(2136),.............. as the acrid, bitter, aromatic, warm food enhances the stomach, liver, spleen channels(2117).

Phytochemical constituents(2117)
1. Beberine
2. Tumerone
3. Dihydroturmerone
4. Curcumin
5. Demethoxycurcumin
6. Bisdemethoxycurcumin
7. Borneol
8. Zingberene
9. Arabic gum
10. Curcumol
11. Zingiberen
12. Phellandrene
13. Eucalyptol
14. Etc.

In metabolic syndrome differentiation(2137)(2138), turmeric has shown to reduce risk of complications of diabetes and cardiovascular disease(2145) through attenuated expression of, lipid-profile (cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and TG)(2137)(2138), fasting glucose(2137)(2138) hypoglycemia(2139)(2140)(2142) and hypolipidemia(2139)(2141)(2142), weigh loss(2138)[body mass index and waist circumference)], insulin resistance(2144)(2143), hypertension(2145)(2146), obesity(2147), c-reactive protein (CRP)(2137)....via glucose and lipid metabolic (2148)(2149), antioxidants(2150)(2151)(2152) and anti inflammatory(2153)(2154)(2155) pathways.
Berberine (BBR), its major chemical constituents also exerted the effect in improving some of the metabolic(829) and hormonal derangements in a group of treated Chinese women with PCOS(829).



8. Carrot
Carrot is a root vegetable with orange color normally, a sub spices of Daucus carota, belongs to the family Apiaceae, native to Asian and Europe.

Nutritional Benefits
1. Carbohydrates
2. Sugars
3. Fibre
4. Fat
5. Protein
6. Vitamin A
7. Thiamine (VittaminB1)
8. Riboflavin (Vittamin B2)
9. Niacin (Vittamin B3)
10. Vitamin B6
11. Folate (Vittamin B9)
12. Vitamin C 13. Vitamin K
14. Calcium
15. Iron
16. Magnesium
17. Molybdenum
18. Phosphorus
19. Potassium
20. Sodium
21. Major chemical compositions include carotenoids(alpha- and beta- carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin and lutein), anthocyanins, phenolic acids,......

In the effects of metabolic syndrome and its complications, anthocyanins, phenolic acids and carotenoids, the major chemical constituents found in carrot have exhibited  anti metabolic syndrome activity through the anthocyanins effects on lipid metabolism(2160) such as dyslipidaemia(2157)(2158)(2159)[LDL- and HDL-cholesterol concentrations], and glucose metabolism(2160) such as glucose tolerance(2157)(2160), hypertension(2157)(2160) and insulin resistance(2160)(2157); the phenolic acids effects in protected against CVD(2157)(2161)(2162) and diabetes(2162) and carotenoids  effects in protected against oxidative processes(2157)(2167), cardiovascular disease(2163)(2164)(2165), hypertension(2166)(2167), insulin sensitivity(2168)(2169), plasma lipid profile(2170), through lipid metabolism(2171)(2172).


9. Black pepper
Black pepper is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. According to traditional Chinese medicine, black pepper has been used as anti-platelet(2173) anti cancer(2174)(2175)(2176), antioxidant(2175)(2176). anti inflammatory(2176)(2173), antispasmodic(2177)(2178), laxative(2178) advocate and to  improve blood circulation(2179) through lowering blood pressure and inhibition of high K+ precontractions and treat gastrointestinal disorders(2178) including  constipation, diarrhea and abdominal pain........., as it enhances the large intestine and stomach channels.

Phytochemical constituents(2180)
1. Piperine and piperitone
2. Sabinene
3. Beta-pinene
4. Limonene
5. Terpinene
6. Alpha-pinene, myrcene
7. Delta3-carene
8. Monoterpene derivatives
9. Sesquiterpene
10. Beta-caryophyllene
11. Humulene
12. Beta-bisabolone
13. Caryophyllene oxide
14. Phenylether
15. Etc.

Piperine, the major chemical compound found in black paper has exhibited anti metabolic syndrome(2181)(2182)  and reduced risk of complications of diabetes(2184)(2185)(2189) and cardiovascular disease(2182)(2186) effects on lipid profile(2182)[LDL-non-HDL-C, total cholesterol, triglycerides and Lp(a), and elevating HDL-C concentrations], obesity(2183), glucose intolerance(2183), and oxidative stress(2183), body weight(2187), insulin and leptin sensitivity(2187)
through its antihyperglycemic(2183)(2189) and hypolipidemic(2183)(2188) metabolisms and antioxidant(2188) and anti-inflammatory activities(2181).


10. Pomegranates
Pomegranates is a fruit-bearing small tree, genus Punica, belonging to family Lythraceae, native to Iran but has been cultivated in Asian since ancient time. The peel has been used in traditional Chinese medicine as anti cancer(2192)(2193)(2194), anti microbial(2192)(2195), neuroprotective(2196)(2197), antioxidant(2192)(2193) and anti inflammatory(2192)(2194) agents and to treatment of abdomen pain(2198)(2199). chronic myeloid leukemia(2191),  occidiosis(2200) and helminthosis(2200), ...... by enhancing the function of large intestine(2190).

Phytochemical constituents(2190)
1. Granatin
2. Punicalin
3. Punicalagin
4. Elaidic aicd
5. Cyanidin-3-glucoside
6. cyanindin-3
7. 5-diglucosede
8. Pelargonidin-3-glucoside
9. pelargonidin-3
10. 5-diglucoside
11. Tetrameric gallic acid(2190)
12. Isoquercetrin
13. Ellagitannins
14. Flavonoids,
16. Anthocyanidins
17. Anthocyanins
18. Estrogenic flavonols
20. Flavones(21))
21. Eic.

According to the data base of PubMed, pomegranate (Punica granatum) also exhibited anti metabolic syndrome(2201)(2202) and reduced risk of complications of diabetes(2203)(2204) and cardiovascular disease through the effects on weigh gain(2203), obesity(2207)(2208), fasting blood sugar(2204)(2205)(2206), lipid profiles(2204), lipoprotein oxidation(2204), hypertension(2210)(2211),  insulin resistance(2205)(2206)(2207), pancreatic islets(2205), hyperglycemia(2205), hyperlipidedmia(2209)(2211),........through antioxidant(2192)(2193) and anti inflammatory(2192)(2194) pathways.



Herbal Medicine for kidney yang, Spleen yang deficiency and Liver  qi stagnation, according to TCM

1. Cortex Radicis Moutan (Mu Dan Pi)
Mu dan pi also known as peony, the acrid, bitter, mildly cool herb has been used in traditional Chinese medicine as anti microbial(1687)(1688), anti inflammatory(1690)(1691)(1692)(1694), antioxidant(1693), anti hypertensive(1690), antiseptic(1690), improved thrombocyte coagulation(1690), immune (1704) and central nervous systems(1705) agents and for treatment of gastric erosion(1695), allergenic rhinitis(1689)(1692),... by enhancing functions of heart, liver, kidney channels(1686)..

Chemical constituents
1. Paeonol
2. Paeonoside
3. Paeonolide
4. Apiopaeonoside
5. Paeoniflorin
6. Ozypaeoniflorin
7. Benzoylpaeoniflorin
8. Benzoyl-oxypaeoniflorin
9. Gallic acid
10. 1,23,4,6-pentagalloylglucose
11. Etc.

In management of women with PCOs, moutan exhibited anti oligo/amenorrhoea and hyperandrogenism(16996), reduced luteinising hormone (LH)(1696), prolactin(1696), fasting insulin(1696) and testosterone(1696). anti high blood pressure(1690)(1697), anti insulin resistance(1698)(1699), improved carbohydrate(1703) and lipid metabolism(1700), anti obesity(1702)(1703) and anti complications of diabetes(1701)(1704) and cardiovascular disease(1706)(1707)(1708).

2. Poria cocos
Poria cocos also known as fu ling, the sweet, bland, neutral herbal medicine has been used in TCM for treatment of cancer(1709)(1710), headache(1712), dizziness(1714), palpitations(1711), insomnia(1715)(1716), neurodegenerative disease(1717)(1718), chronic gastritis(1714), chronic inflammation(1712) and to strengthen the body(1711), improve body weight(1719), kidney functions(1712)(1713) and protect against lipid peroxidation of red blood cells(1720), etc.... by enhancing the functions of heart, spleen, lung, kidney channels(1711).

Chemical constituents(1711)
1. Pachymose
2. B-pachyman,
3. B-pachymanase
4. Pachymic acid
5. Tumulosic acid
6. Eburioic acid
7. Pinicolic acid
8. β-amprin acetate
9. B-hydroxy lanosta-7
10. Poricoic acid
11. Caprylic acid
12. Undecanoic acid
13. Lauric acid
14. Dodecenoic acid
15. Palmitic acid
16. Etc.

Epidemiological studies also suggested that poria cocos may be used for treatment of women with PCOs due to its effects on prevented and alleviated dehydroepiandrosterone-induced polycystic ovarian syndrom(1721), decreased serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)(1719) and luteinizing hormone (LH)(1719) levels, weigh gain(1719) through up-regulation of estrogen receptor α (ERα) and estrogen receptor β (ERβ)(1719), improved metabolism(1722), reduced risk of PCOs' complications of diabetes(1723).


3. Rehmannia glutinosa Liboschitz var. purpurae(Di Huang)
Di huang can be sheng (raw) or Shu (cooked) and is also known as Rehmannia
Sheng di huang(The bitter, sweet, bitter cold in nature) and Shu di huang (The bitter, sweet, bitter and warm in nature)(1724) has been used in TCM as diuretic(1734), anti hyperglycemicagent(1726), anti cancers(1731)(1732) and to treat cough(1743), asthma(1744)(1746), lung inflammation induced shortness of breath(1745), and wheezing(1746), tinnitus(1747) and hearing loss(17447), poor memory(1741), bronchial contraction)1746), and chest tightness(1746), lower plasma glucose(1725)(1727), enhance heart function(1734)(1735) (small doses constrict the blood vessels and large doses dilate the blood vessel)(1724), and regulate steroid hormone(1736),..... by promoting the functions of heart, kidney, and liver channels(1724).

Chemical constituents(1724)
1. Leonuride
2. Aucubin
3. Catalpol
4. Melittoside
5. Melittoside
6. Rehmannioside ABCD
7. 8-epiloganic acid 8
8. Ajugoside
9. Lysine
10. Histidine
11. Arginine
12. Sapartic acid
13. Glutamic acid)
14. Threonine
15. Serine
16. Gluycine
17. Alanine
18. Valine
19. Isoleucine
20. Leucine
21. Tyrosine
22. Phenylalnine
23. Etc.


Epidemiological studies proposed that rehmannia also displays anti metabolic syndrome(1728), including fatigue(1728), prediabetes(1728)(1737), LDL-C, hypertension(1729), lipid profile(1728)(1737), including total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, LDL-C)(1736)(1737), insulin resistance(1730), waist size(1736) and obesity(1742), through its effects in carbohydrate(1740)(1741) and lipid metabolism(1728) of which reduce risk of diabetes(1728)(1739) and cardiovascular disease(1728)(1736).
According to Kyung Hee University. formula Kyung-Ok-Ko, containing rehmannia, prevented and alleviated dehydroepiandrosterone-induced polycystic ovarian syndrome in rats model(1738).

4. Lycium chinense(Qi Zi)(1759)
Gou Qi Zi or Qi Zi is also known as wolfberry fruit. The sweet and neutral herb has been used in TCM as anti cancer(1748)(1749)(1750), antiviral(1751), and antiinflammatory(1751) agent and to treat weakness(1768) mental acuity(1768), shortness of breath(1768), memory and neurogenesis impairments(1752), relieve pain(1753) improve vision(1754)(1755), anemia(1754), diabetes(1756), promote antiaging(1757), enhance immune system(1751), heart function(1751), lower blood lipids(1751), modulate estrogen receptors(1750) etc., as it nourishes and tonifies liver and kidneys by enhancing the functions of liver, lung and kidney channels(1758).

Chemical constituents(1758)
1. Betaine
2. β-sitosterol
3. Linoleic acid
4. Physalien
5. Cryptoxanthin
6. Atropine
7. Hyoscyamine
8. Scopoletin
9. Amino acids
10. Physalein
11. Zeaxanthin
12. Dipalmitate
13. Carotene
14. Etc.


Epidemiologically, wolfberry also processed anti oxidant(1763)(1762) and anti inflammatory(1765)(1764), anti insulin resistance(1760)(1761), anti depression(1767), sleep disorder(1768), anti stress(1768), anti mental deficits(1768) and anti metabolic syndrome(1766), through its enhanced carbohydrate(1770), lipid(1766) and other metabolic(1766) mechanisms, including fasting glucose(1770), hypertensive(1771)(1772), anti hyperglycaemic(1769)(1770)(1774), anti hyperlipidemic(1773)(1774), weight gain(1770), obesity, ,,, of which induced protective effects against the development of diabetes(1775)(1776) and cardiovascular disease(1777)(1751)(1778).

5. Panax ginseng(Ren Shen)(1779)
Ren Shen is also known as Ginseng, panax ginseng. The smells aromatic, tastes sweet and slightly warm herbs had been used in TCM as improved immune system(1781)(1782), anti cancer(1783)(1784)(1785), anti aging(1786)(1787), anti stress(1788)(1789), antioxidant(1790)(1791), anti inflammatory(1792)(1793),...... agent and to generate body liquids and allay thirst(1794), treat
nervous disorders(1794)(1795)(1796), anemia(1797)(1798), dyspnoea(1799)(1800), forgetfulness(1801) and confusion(1802), decreased libido(1803)(1804), chronic fatigue(1805)(1806), angina(1807), nausea and vomiting(1808),......as it strongly tonifies original qi, the spleen and lungs, by enhancing the functions of spleen and lung channels(1780).

Chemical constituents(1779)(1780)
1. Saponins
2. Panaxynol
3. Ginsenyne
4. Alpha pansinsene
5. Beta pansinsene
6. Beta farnesene
7. Bicyclogermacrene
8. Beta elemene
9. Gama elemene
10. Alpha neodovene
11. Beta neodovene
12. Alpha humulene
13. Beta humulene
14. Ccaryophyllene
15. Beta gurjunene
16. Alpha gurjunene
17. Alpha selinene
18. Beta selinene
19. Gama selinene
20. Selin-4, alpha guaiene
21. Gama cubebene
22. Beta patchoulene
23. Hepatadecanol-1
24. Etc.

Epidemiological literature found in data base of PubMed also suggested that panax ginseng also processes anti metabolic syndrome(1809)(1810)(1811), through its effect on insulin resistance(1812)(1813), fasting blood glucose(1814)(1815), hyperglycemia(1816)(1817), hyperlipidemia(1818)(1819)(1820), hypertension(1821)(1822), weight control(1823) and obesity(1823)(1824)(1825),.....as well as reducing risk of diabetes(1827)(1826)(1828) and cardiovascular disease(1829)(1830)(1831).
According to the research article dated 29 April 2014, the king of the herb has also found effectively for treatment of infertility of both sexes, including women with Polycystic ovary syndrome through lowering high numbers of antral follicles and increased the number of corpora lutea in the polycystic ovaries(1832).


6. Fructus Schisandrae (Wu Wei Zi)
(See stress management herbs in herbal medicine for more infomation)
[Schisandra also is known as Wu Wei Zi, a twining shrub living its life by climbing on other vegetation, belongings to the family Schisandraceae, native to Asia and North America, The warm, sweet, bitter, sour, acrid, salty herb has been used in tradional Chinese medicine as antioxidant(1218)(1219), anti stress(1220)(1221), anti microbial(1224)(1225)(1226) agent and to improve metabolism(1227)(1228), enhance central nervous system(1229)(1230)(1233), treat hypertension(1231)(1232) and hypotension during exhaustion of circulatory function(1217), coughing(1234)(12135), insomnia(1237), premenstrual syndrome (PMS)(1239), menopausal symptoms(1240), depression(1233), irritability(1233), erectile dysfunction (ED)(1238), lower cholesterol(1241) and regulate blood glucose(1233), improve memory(1222)(1223), etc.
by promoting function of lung and kidney channels(1217).

Phytochemical contituents(1217)
1. Schizandrin
2. Deoxyschisandrin
3. Gamma-schisandrin
4. Schisandrol
5. Pseudo-gamma-schisandrin
6. Schizandrate B
7. Gomisin A, B, C, F, G
8. Angeloylgomisin H
9. Tigloylgomisin H
10. Benzoylgomisin H
11. Epigomisin O
12. Malic acid
13. Citric acid
14. Tartaric acid
15. Succinic acid
16. A-pinene
17. Camphene
18. B-pinene
19. Byrcene
20. A-terpinene
21. Limonene
22. G-terpinene
23. P-cymene
24. Etc.

In chronic psychological stress male rat model, schisandra protect against stress induced complications such as carbohydrate metabolism(1227) and neurosis, psychogenic depression, astheno-depressive states, schizophrenia and alcoholism disorders(1233) and improved mental performance(1233).through its reduction of the levels of corticosterone (CORT) and glucose and protect the structure of the adrenal cortex(1227).
In physiological stress, the herbal medicine also exerted its stress-protective effect against a broad spectrum of harmful factors including heat shock, skin burn, cooling, frostbite, immobilisation, swimming under load in an atmosphere with decreased air pressure, aseptic inflammation, irradiation, and heavy metal intoxication(1233).
In oxidative stress induced damage heart(1242) tissues in animal models, schisandrin B (Sch B), a dibenzocyclooctadiene derivative isolated from the fruit of Schisandra chinensis attenuated cardiotoxicity via antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects(1242). In oxidative stress induced liver damage, oral administration of Schisandra Lignans Extract (SLE)(1243)(1244) or triterpenoid(1245) a chemical constituent from Schisandra chinensis significantly reduced liver damage(1243)(1244)(1245) in experimental animal model, through its effects of balance of oxidation and reduction in cells(1243) or upregulating cell cycle progression(1244) and anti tumor antigen(1244), or ameliorating oxidative stress(1245).]

In metabolic syndrome, beside protecting against depression(1233), irritability(1233), high level of bad cholesterol(1241) and fluctuation of blood glucose(1233), memory lose(1222)(1223),... Schisandra also exhibited anti insulin resistance(1834)(1835), anti lipid disorder metabolism(1836) induced hypercholesterolemia(1837), anti hypertension(1838)(1839). suppressed carbohydrate disorder metabolism(1842) induced hyperglycemia(1843), obesity(1840)(1841),...... causing complications of diabetes(1844)(1845) and cardiovascular disease(1838)(1846)(1847).

7.  Licorice (gancao)
(See stress management in herbal medicine for more information)
[Gan Cao is also known as Licorice root. The sweet and neutral herb has been used in TCM as anti allergy(856), anti inflammation(855), anti ulcer(857), anti convulsion(858) agent and to treat stomach weakness, tired and lack of strength, cough with abundance of phlegm, stomach and solar plexus pain, and improve cardiac function(855), etc., as it tonifies the Spleen, benefits the Qi, moistens the Lungs, calms cough, deaf or acute pain, by enhancing all 12 channels(859).In treatment of PCOs(862), combination of licorice and 100 mg spironolactone showed the activation of the renin-aldosterone system in lowering blood pressure and water (fluid) balance(860). reducing the prevalence of side effects related to the diuretic activity of spironolactone(860). In model rats experiment, Ganshao Paste (CGP), showed the decrease of serum levels of LH, T, and FSH and increase of serum estradiol (E2), and progesterone (P)(861)(865)].

(See The Insulin resistance improvement and/or anti metabolic syndrome herbs: Licorice for more information)
1. PCOs
[ Licorice, in a review of 33 studies of herbal medicine for the management of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), showed a strong evidence in improved metabolic hormone profile and improved fertility outcomes and regulation of ovulation and inhibition of hyperandrogenism in PCOS(860). In model rats experiment, Ganshao Paste (CGP), also decreased serum levels of LH, T, and FSH and increased of serum estradiol (E2), and progesterone (P)(861)(860)(865). According to University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, licorice may have a potential effect on metabolic syndrome(862) in women with PCOs.

2. Blow flow
Licorice improves the blood flow in the body by exerting its anti thrombosis(983) and inhibiting the levels of bad cholesterol(984)(985) and triglyceride levels(985) and increasing HDL-cholesterol content(984) in reduced risk of cardiovascular disease(985) and blood stagnation(897) in the abdominal region induced induced infertility(986).

3. Glycyrrhizin
Glycyrrhizin, one of main ingredient from licorice, exhibited anti inflammatory effect pharmacologically in treatment of inflammatory diseases(988)(989)(990), lowered high serum testosterone levels in oligomenorrheic or amenorrheic women, and induced conception in some women(991). As antioxidant, the phytochemical also inhibit irregular cell growth(992)(993) and microbial invasion(994)(995) causes of cancers(992)(993) and infection and inflammation(994)(995) respectively. in adrenocortical function and behavour, it also regulated the levels of cortisol(996), induced by over production of serotonin cause of hormone imbalance(997).

4. Phytoestrogen
See phytoestrogen in black cohosh
[Phytoestrogen found it balck cohosh showed to occupy the estrogen receptor sites in women body(908), through it antiestrogenic and extrogenic effects(909), to induce hormone balancing may result in improving the chance of ovulation and fertility(910)(911)].

5. Lecithin
Lecithin is a fat like substance called a phospholipid improved lipid transfer, cholesterol efflux, HDL genesis and and remodeling at the blood-brain barrier (BBB)(998). against cells from oxidation surrounding the brain(999), in reducing psychotic symptoms(1002) such as stress(1000)(1001), and depression(1002).
Side effects
1. It may raise blood pressure(1003)(1004(1006)
2. Long term usage of large dosage can also cause edema(1004)(1006) and hypokalemia(1004)(1005)(1006).
3. Overdose can be toxic(106), in inducing rhabdomyolysis or myoglobinuria(1006).
4. Etc.]

Phytochemicals(1058)
1. Glycyrrhizic acid
2. Licochalcone A
3. Licochalcone B
4. Licoflavone
5. Liquiritin
5. Liquiritigenin
7. Isoliquiritigenin
8. Ononins
9. 4′7-dihydroxyflavone
10. Glycyrrhetinic acid
11. 11-deoxyglycyrrhetinic acid
12. β-sitosterol
13. Etc.

Licorice's phytochemicals, especially glycyrrhizin, have shown efffectively in ameliorated insulin resistance(1059)(1061)(1063)(1064), hyperglycemia(1059)(1060), dyslipidemia(1059)(1063) and oxidative stress(1064) in fructose-induced metabolic syndrome(1059)(1061)(1063) in animal(1059)(1060)(1061)models, probably through its interference of the development of visceral obesity(1064) and cellular derailments that are responsible for the development of metabolic syndrome(1062), anti inflammatory(1062), antioxidant(1062) and an associated with a decrease in tissue lipid deposition(1063) effects].

In chronic unpredictable stress rat model, total flavonoids extract(1153) (licorice flavonoids, LF) and liquiritin(1154), a phyochemical found in locorice exerted anti-depressive(1153)(1154)(1155) and anti-cognitive impairment(1156) property through total flavonoids extract neurogenesis protective effect(1153) and defense of liquiritin and flavonoids extract against oxidative stress(1154)(1156).
Yokukansan, a traditional Japanese formula, containing licorice showed effectively in amelioration of   behavioral symptoms, such as aggressiveness, excitability, and hallucination, through reduced stress increased the serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptors density on the plasma membrane of the prefrontal cortex (PFC)(1158).
In high-glucose stress, Glabridin(1159)(1160), an isoflavan from licorice root reduced high-glucose stress(1159)(1160) through its anti inflammatory activity(1159), up-regulates manganese superoxide dismutase, catalase and paraoxonase 2(1160).
In anti oxidative stress, licorice showed to contribute to their overall health promoting pharmacological effects against free radicals(1161)(1162)(1163)(1164) induced diseases such as cancer(1161), cardiac dysfunction(1162) liver disease(1164), etc., through its anti-inflammatory(1161)(1163)(1164), anti-oxidant activities(1161)(1162)(1163)(1164).
According to University of Western Sydney, Glycyrrhiza glabra, one of Chinese herbs, exhibited strong evidences of neuroprotective activity for promotion of healthy ageing and longevity(1157).]
According to studies, licorice also is effective in preventing and ameliorating diabetes(2222)(2224), abdominal obesity(2222)(2223) in rat model study.
On metabolic syndrome's complication of cardiovascular disease, licorice and its phytochemicals exerted cardioprotective effect(2227) in prevention of incidence of fatal ventricular arrhythmia from ischemia/reperfusion injury(2225), myocardial infarction(2226) by amelioration of oxidative stress and modulation of cardiac function(2226).


8. Cordyceps militaris(Dong Chong Xia cao)
Dong chong xia cao, the sweet and warm herb also known as cordyceps sinensis, used in traditional Chinese medicine as immune enhancer(2229)(2230), anti microbial(2231)(2232), anti oxidant(2233)(2234), anti inflammatory(2235)(2236), anti cancer(2237)(2238), cardio-protective(2239)(2240)(2241) agent and for treatment of cirrhosis(2242)(2243), lower back pain (due to it analgesic property)(2244), chronic cough and asthma(2245)(2246), ... as it tonifies yang, nourishes lung yin, transforms phlegm, by enhancing the function of kidney and lung channels(2229).

Phytochemical constituents(2228)
1. Cordyceps polysaccharide
2. Ergosterol
3. Cordycepic acid
4. Amino Acids
5. Lysine
6. Aspartic acid
7. Threonine
8. Taurine
9. Etc.

On metabolic syndrome, in diabetics rat model, Dong chong xia cao inhibited significantly the level of glucose metabolic disorders(2250)(such as hyperglycemia(2251)(2252) by enhancing the glyconeogenesis in serum glucose and lipid profiles(2247), by promoting anti-lipid peroxidation activities and inhibit accumulation of cholesteryl ester in macrophages via suppression of LDL oxidation(2253), regulating the expression of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase (HL) activity(2253) and activating protein kinase (AMPK)(2254), improved insulin sensitive(2248)(2249) by inhibiting the activity of human protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) activity(2249) though metabolism of glucose and lipid(2247)(2248), the microcirculation disturbance(2247)(2248) and the oxidative stress(2247)
On obesity, dong chong xia cao has found to improve the obesity(2255)(2256) through decreased body weight and improved energy uptake(2255) by inhibiting alpha-glycosidase(2255) and adipogenic(2256) and lipid accumulation(2256) activity.
On metabolic syndrome's complications, the herbal medicine reduced risk of diabetes(2259)(2260) and cardiovascular disease(2259) through inhibition of low grade inflammation(2259)(2260) and platelet activation(2263)via immunomodulatory(2259)(2260) and antioxidant activity(2261)(2262).
According to Jenteh Junior College of Medicine and Nursing Management and National Cheng Kung University Medical College, dong chong xia cao improved sex desire(2257), and fertility(2258) through increasing serum testosterone and estradiol-17 (E2) concentrations in production of quality of maturing oocyte, respectively without effecting follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) or prolactin(2257).

9. Huang qi (Astragalus, Astragalus membranaceus)(1045)
(See The Insulin resistance improvement and/or anti metabolic syndrome herbs for more information)
Huang Qi or Bei Qi is also known as Astragalus root. The sweet herb has been used as diuretic agent and to lower blood pressure(2264)(2265) and increase blood pressure in high dose(1045), lessen proteinuria(2266)(2267), improve endurance(2268)(2269), protect liver against diseases(2270)(2271)(2272) and renal diseases(2273)(2274)(2275),........ as it tonifies qi, raises yang, strengthens the defensive-qi and the exterior, expels toxins, etc.,...... by enhancing the functions of lung and spleen channels(1045).

Chemical constituents
1. Astragaloside I,
2. Astragaloside II,
3. Daucosterol,
3. Beta-sitosterol,
4. Palmitic acid
5. Astragalus saponin A,B,C
6. Astramenbrangenin
7. Kumatakenin,
8. Choline,
9. Betaine,
10. Folic acid
11. Calyxosin,
12. Formononetin,
13. Cycloastragenol,
14. Astragaloside III,IV
15. Antibacterial ingredient,
16. L-3-hydroxy-9-methoxpterocarpan
17. Etc.(1045)

Epidemiological studies showed that astragalus polysaccharides (APS) ameliorates insulin resistance(1046)(1047) (IR) in rat cells and to elucidate the associated mechanisms, including increasing adiponectin secretion and reducing IL-6 secretion(1046), decreasing myostatin expression(1047), improving beta cell function(1049), regulating insulin signalling in insulin-resistant skeletal muscle(1047)(1048). insulin resistance related mRNA expression(1049), etc.
In metabolic syndrome, including increased body weight(1050), mild hypertension(1050), hyper insulinemia(1050), hyper triglyceridemia(1050), impaired glucose tolerance(1050)(1053) and impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation(1050)(1051)(1052), astragaloside IV, a major constituent found in astragalus showed effectively in ameliorating metabolic syndrome(1050)(1052), probably through its antioxidant(1051), inhibition of abnormal TNF-alpha-induced intracellular free Ca(2+) accumulation in endothelial cells(1052), decreasing the elevated expression and activity in the skeletal muscles(1053).
On obesity, triterpene aglycone derived from Radix astragali and the whole herb alleviated obesity, through regulating intracellular calcium(2276), improving impaired endothelial dysfunction(2277) respectively.
On complications of diabetes, astragalus polysaccharides may be the next generation extract for treatment of diabetes due to its effects on correcting the imbalance between the Th1/Th2(T lymphocyte) cytokines(2278), downregulating ROS-ERK-NF-κB pathway(2279) and antioxidant activity(2280)
and on cardiovascular disease, astragalus polysaccharide (APS), astragaloside IV and total flavone of astragalus (TFA) attenuated Iso-induced cardiac hypertrophy(2281)(2282) and cardiac inflammation(2282), ischemia/reperfusion injury(2283) respectively trough vary mechanisms


10. Mu Xu(Alfalfa)
Alfalfa is a flowering plant in the genus Medicago, belonging to the family Fabaceae, cultivated all over the world as hay for cattle feeding. The leaves, sprouts, and seeds to make medicine has been used in traditional medicine over thousands of year for treatment of high cholesterol(2284)(2285), atherosclerosis(2286)(2287), cancer(2288)(2289), hyperglycemia(2290)(2291) and menopausal symptoms(2292)(2293) and as neuroprotective(2294)(2295), antioxidant(2295)(2296), antiulcer(2295), antimicrobial(2295)(2297), estrogenic(2295)(2298) and anto estrogenic(2299) agent. North American aboriginal has used Alfalfa seed as food, such as making bread and mush(1054).

Nutrients
1. Essential amino acids
2. Calcium
3. Magnesium
4. Potassium
5. Iron
6. Phosphorus
7. Zinc
8. Beta carotene
9. vitamin C
10. vitamins D
11.Vitamin E
12. Vitamin K
13. Flavones
14. Isoflavones
15. Sterols
16. Derivatives of coumarin
17. Etc.

In diabetes, alfalfa exhibited prevention of the onset of developing Type 1 Diabetes(1056)
diabetogenic or anti-diabetic potentials(1055), through its estrogenic activity in modulation of diabetes(1055), protection against pancreas from autoimmune destruction(1056), antihyperglycaemic, insulin-releasing and insulin-like activity(1057).
In insulin resistance, dietary of alfalfa exhibited insulinaemic effects, according to University of Leipzig(2300) and Kitasato University(2301) in animal studies.
In cardiovascular disease, the was found effectively in prevention of the onset of heart disease and stroke(2302), through its nutrient and phytochemical compositions(2302), enhancement of cholesterol efflux in the liver(2303) and this reduced of cholesterol depositions(2303)(2304).
In take of mordanted alfalfa fiber has also shown to effect body weight and in contribution to anti obesity activity in animal study(2305)(2306).


11.  Du Zhong(cortex Eucommiae Ulmoidis)
Du zhong, the sweet, slightly acrid, and warm herb, also known as eucommia bark used in traditional Chinese medicine as immune enhancer(2308)(2310),  diuretic(2311), sedative(2312), anti inflammatory(2313)(2314) advocate,....... and for treatment of chronic pain in lower back and knees, lack of strength, dizziness, impotence, irregular menses and frequent urination, unstable pregnancy, chronic pain in lower back and excessive movements of fetus,... as its tonifes the kidney and liver and enhances the functions of kidney and liver functions(2307).

Chemicals constituents(2309)
1. Betulin
2. Byringin
3. Pervoside A
4. Glucosyringic acid
5. Vanillic acid-beta-glucoside
6. Geniposide acid
7. Aucubin
8. Geniposide
9. Pinoresinol-4,4'-di-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside
10. Syringaresinol di-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside
11. Medioresinol di-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside
12. Sucrose
13. Ethyl beta-glucopyranoside
14. Etc.

In metabolic syndrome, du zhong showed to attenuate hypertension(2316)(2319)(2321) through exhibiting  beta-adrenergic blocking activity(2319) and regulating NO and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and directly relaxing artery(2321); obesity(2316)(2317)(2318) and improve insulin resistance(2318) or hyperlipaemia(2318)(2316), through suppressed increases body weight(2317), white adipose tissue weight(2317), plasma triglyceride levels(2317) and free fatty acids level(2317) and through secretion and regulation of adipocytokines(2318); hyperglycemia(2323),
sexual dysfunction(2316), and complications of diabetes(2316)(2324) through antioxidant(2324) activity and altered the plasma and hepatic lipid levels by lowering the cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, while elevating the plasma HDL-cholesterol level(2125).
Dr. Park and research team at the Yeungnam University said "Du-zhong extract is potentially beneficial for the prevention and management of complications of type 2 diabetes"(2324); and cardiovascular disease(2320) through reversed hypertensive vascular remodelling(2320)(2322)(2323) and inhibited angiotensin II (Ang II) expression in stimulated extracellular matrix biosynthesis in mesangial cell(2322)(2323)
According to study, compound FF16, compatibility of Rhodiola crenulata, Cordyceps militaris, and Rheum palmatum, was found effectively  in enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion through increased islet amount, the enlarged islet area by protecting the pancreatic beta-cells(2315).


The TCM Management and Treatment of PCOs induced by Kidney yin deficiency

Along with common symptoms mentioned above, women with PCOs diagnosed with kidney yin deficiency may also experience yin vacuity induced cold expressive syndrome, including soreness of waist and knees(1848), lassitude(1848) and fatigue(1848), short breath(1848), poor appetite(1848), aversion to cold(184), cold extremities(1848), ringing in the ears(1850), migraine(1849), hearing problems(1850), a dry mouth and throat(1851), pale fingernails(1851), tidal fever(1851)and night sweating(1851), soles(1851) and chest(1851), constipation(1852),,......... as the kidneys no longer perform their functions of regulating fluid in moistening and nourishing organs and tissues of the body. According to TCM, too much cold/raw foods can aggravate the condition.

Foods for Kidney yin deficiency
List of foods suggested by TCM doctors for management and treatment of PCOs' women diagnosed with kidney yin deficiency, including

1. Navy bean
(See nutritional supplement suggested by TCM)
[Navy bean (White kidney bean)extract
The small, white kidney bean, also called pea bean or haricot, popular in both dry and green forms, is very popular in Britain and the US, native to Peru. It is now grown and consumed across the world, due to their numerous health benefits(1402).

Nutritional ingredients
1. Carbohydrate
2. Protein
3. Dietary fiber
4. Vitamin A
5. Vitamin B1
6. copper
7. Iron
8. Manganese
9. Phosphorus
10. Magnesium(1402)
11. Catechin derivatives(1403)
12. Proanthocyanidins(1403)
13. Catechin glucoside(1403)
14. Etc.

Epidemiological studies, linking navy bean as a functional health foods, may be due to its phenolic composition in reduced the incidence of several chronic diseases(1402)(1411) that shared an inflammatory component(1403), including irregular cell growth(1406)(1407), diabetes(1402)(1407), CVD(1407), glycemic response(1404)(1405)(1407), aid digestion(1404)(1405), sleep disorder(1402), irritable bowel syndrome(1402) and constipation(1402), infertility(1402), neurotransmitter dysfunction(1402), colitis(1408), improved colon health(1408)(1409). etc. probably through its total phenolic content effects on antioxidant(1410)(1411) and anti inflammatory activities(1411) and other mechanism.
According to studies, white kidney bean also processes certain properties against PCOs related syndrome including effect on diabesity, a collection of obesity/overweight, type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance(1412), GI index(1413) through its carb blockers(1413) mimiced the beneficial effects of fibers(1412). Its extract, according to studies, also induced blood glucose levels(1415) and weight loss(1414)(1415) through blocking carbohydrate absorption(1414), and regulating hoglycaemic and anorexigenic activities of an alpha-amylase inhibitor(1415)].

2. Flaxseed oil
(See nutritional supplements suggested by TCM)
Flaxseed oil is extracted from the seeds of the flax plant (Linum usitatissimum) contained both omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. Flaxseed oil generally contains 50% of the omega-3 fatty acid - alpha-linolenic acid and 25 % of the omega-6 fatty acid linolenic acid, 15 % of mainly monounsaturated oleic acid and trace amounts of palmitoleic acid and eicosenoic acid(1371).

Nutritional ingredients
1. Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)
2. Palmitic acid
3. Stearic acid
4. Arachidic acid
5. Palmitoleic acid
6. Oleic acid
7. Eicosenoic acid
8. Linoleic acid
9. Etc.(1371)

Epidemiological studies of health benefit are well established, including reduced blood pressure(1372)
(1373) and cholesterol(1374)(1375), risk of irregular cell growth(1376)(1377), diabetes(1378)(1379) and osteoporosis(1380)(1381), benefit cardiovascular system(1382)(1383), menopause symptoms(1384)(1385), cyclic mastalgia (breast pain)(1390), patients with Sjogren’s syndrome(1386) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD(1387)(1388), use of natural laxative(1389)(1390), human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS)(1390), etc., probably due to the the efficacy of alpha-linoleic acid(1390) and its antioxidant(1391)(1392)(1393)(1394) and anti inflammatory(1392)(1395)(1396) activity.

Recent studies also suggested that flax seed oil processes anti insulin resistance(1397)(1398) and metabolic syndrome(1400)(1401), confers health benefits in obesity(1400) due to its effect on adipocyte function(1399) activities due to the effects of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)(1400)(1401)].

3. Salmon(1860)
Salmon is the common name for Salmonidae. They are anadromous, born in fresh water, migrate to the ocean, then travel thousands of miles in the deep sea cold water throughout their life cycle and within to five years returning to the exacted location where they were born to reproduce and die.

Nutrients
1. Protein
2. Omega-3 fatty acids
3. B vitamins
4. Vitamin D
5. Astaxanthin
is a potent antioxidant that stimulates the development of healthy fish nervous systems and enhances the fish's fertility and growth rate.
6. Selenium
7. Tryptophan
8. Magnesium
9. Phosphorus
10. Etc.


Epidemiological studies suggested that low-molecular-weight peptides(1862) and long-chain polyunsaturated ω3 and ω6 fatty acids(1863) of salmon can alleviate metabolic syndrome (MetS)(1862)(1863) due to its effects on glucose tolerance(1862)(1864)(1866), fasting glucose(1866), hypertension(1868)adipose tissue inflammation(1862)(1865), insulin resistance(1865), body weight(1865), obesity(1866), lipid homeostasis(1862)(1867), and hepatic insulin signaling(1862) of which reduce risk of diabetes(1871) and cardiovascular disease(1870)(1872).

4. Organic soy products and whole food
Made from organic soy bean has induced many controversies due to conflict of Western cancer studies. Readers in the Western world should consult their caregivers before taking any of these products.
Soybean is genus Glycine, the family Fabaceae, one of the legumes that contains twice as much protein per acre as any other major vegetable or grain crop, native to Southeast Asia. Now, it is grown worldwide massively in suitable climate for commercial profit and a a healthy foods(1873). According to GMO compass, in 2113, 79% of soybean production were genetic modified(1874).

Nutrients
1. Carbohydrates
2. Dietary fiber
3. Fat
4. Protein
5. Essential amino acid
6. Vitamin A
7. Vitamin B6
8. Vitamin B12
9. Vitamin C
10. Vitamin K
11. Calcium
12. Iron
13. Magnesium
14. Phosphorus
15. Potassium
16. Sodium
17. Zinc
18. Etc.

According to the data base from PubMed, organic soy bean has shown to inhibit certain effects in metabolic syndrome, including hypertension(1875)(1884), hypercholesterolemia(1875)(1876)(1877), dyslipidemia(1878)(1884) inflammation(1875)(1883), insulin resistance(1876)(1884), impaired fasting glucose(1880)(1881), prediabetes(1884)(1885), hyperglycerolemia(1887), weight control(1888)(1889) and obesity(1876)(1886) as well as reduced risk of diabetes(1885) and cardiovascular disease(1875)(1877)(1892), probably due to its protein(1876) and phytochemicals(1883)(1893) effects on lipid(1890)(1891)(1893) and glucose(1893) metabolism andin regulation of insulin-mediated glucose homeostasis in adipose tissue(1882).

5. Mushroom(1894)
Mushroom is a standard name of white button mushroom, the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus produced above ground on soil or on its food source, It is a genus A. Muscaria, belongings to the family Amanitaceae, cultivated in many cultures all over the world for foods and health benefits. According to studies, mushroom has shown effectively in treatment of cancer(1895)(1896)(1897), improved immunity(1896)(1897), weight management(1898) and satiety(1899), asthma(1900), rheumatoid arthritis(1900), stroke(1901), microbial infection and inflammation(1896)(1903),....... probably due to its chemical compositions, such as polysaccharides, terpenoids, phenolic compounds(1902) and nutrients in antioxidant(1896) and anti inflammatory(1902) expressions.

Nutrients
1. Carbohydrates
2. Protein
3. Thiamine (Vitamin B1)
4. Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
5. Niacin (Vitamin B3)
6. Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5)
7. Calcium
8. Phosphorus
9. Potassium
10. Sodium
11. Selenium
12. Iron
13. Copper
14. Zinc
15. Etc.

In metabolic syndrome, mushroom inhibited effectively central obesity(1904)(1906), hyperglycaemia(1904)(1907), hypercholesterolemia(1904)(1906)(1910), hyperleptinemia(1905), insulinemia(1905)(1910) and hypertension(1904),(1908) glucose tolerance(1905)(1907), fasting glucose plasma(1909), insulin resistance(1905)(1911) and its complication such as diabetes(1906)(1912) and cardiovascular disease(1895), through expression of its phytochemicals such as polysaccharide fractions, eritadenin, triterpenes, sterols and phenolic compounds(1904).


TCM Herbal Medicine for Treatment of PCOs induced by Kidney yin deficiency

1. Sheng Di Huang(See kidney yang tonified herbal medicine)
[Shen di huang (The bitter, sweet, bitter and cold in nature)(1724) has been used in TCM as diuretic(1734), anti hyperglycemicagent(1726), anti cancers(1731)(1732) and to treat cough(1743), asthma(1744)(1746), lung inflammation induced shortness of breath(1745), and wheezing(1746), tinnitus(1747) and hearing loss(17447), poor memory(1741), bronchial contraction)1746), and chest tightness(1746), lower plasma glucose(1725)(1727), enhance heart function(1734)(1735) (small doses constrict the blood vessels and large doses dilate the blood vessel)(1724), and regulate steroid hormone(1736),..... by promoting the functions of heart, kidney, and liver channels(1724).

Chemical constituents(1724)
1. Leonuride
2. Aucubin
3. Catalpol
4. Melittoside
5. Melittoside
6. Rehmannioside ABCD
7. 8-epiloganic acid 8
8. Ajugoside
9. Lysine
10. Histidine
11. Arginine
12. Sapartic acid
13. Glutamic acid)
14. Threonine
15. Serine
16. Gluycine
17. Alanine
18. Valine
19. Isoleucine
20. Leucine
21. Tyrosine
22. Phenylalnine
23. Etc.


Epidemiological studies proposed that rehmannia also displays anti metabolic syndrome(1728), including fatigue(1728), prediabetes(1728)(1737), LDL-C, hypertension(1729), lipid profile(1728)(1737), including total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, LDL-C)(1736)(1737), insulin resistance(1730), waist size(1736) and obesity(1742), through its effects in carbohydrate(1740)(1741) and lipid metabolism(1728) of which reduce risk of diabetes(1728)(1739) and cardiovascular disease(1728)(1736).
According to Kyung Hee University. formula Kyung-Ok-Ko, containing rehmannia, prevented and alleviated dehydroepiandrosterone-induced polycystic ovarian syndrome in rats model(1738).

2. Lycium chinense(Qi Zi)(1759)
See kidney yang tonified TCM herbal medicine
[Gou Qi Zi or Qi Zi is also known as wolfberry fruit. The sweet and neutral herb has been used in TCM as anti cancer(1748)(1749)(1750), antiviral(1751), and antiinflammatory(1751) agent and to treat weakness(1768) mental acuity(1768), shortness of breath(1768), memory and neurogenesis impairments(1752), relieve pain(1753) improve vision(1754)(1755), anemia(1754), diabetes(1756), promote antiaging(1757), enhance immune system(1751), heart function(1751), lower blood lipids(1751), modulate estrogen receptors(1750) etc., as it nourishes and tonifies liver and kidneys by enhancing the functions of liver, lung and kidney channels(1758).

Chemical constituents(1758)
1. Betaine
2. β-sitosterol
3. Linoleic acid
4. Physalien
5. Cryptoxanthin
6. Atropine
7. Hyoscyamine
8. Scopoletin
9. Amino acids
10. Physalein
11. Zeaxanthin
12. Dipalmitate
13. Carotene
14. Etc.


Epidemiologically, wolfberry also processed anti oxidant(1763)(1762) and anti inflammatory(1765)(1764), anti insulin resistance(1760)(1761), anti depression(1767), sleep disorder(1768), anti stress(1768), anti mental deficits(1768) and anti metabolic syndrome(1766), through its enhanced carbohydrate(1770), lipid(1766) and other metabolic(1766) mechanisms, including fasting glucose(1770), hypertensive(1771)(1772), anti hyperglycaemic(1769)(1770)(1774), anti hyperlipidemic(1773)(1774), weight gain(1770), obesity,........ of which induced protective effects against the development of diabetes(1775)(1776) and cardiovascular disease(1777)(1751)(1778).


3. Shiitake mushroom
Shiitake mushroom is an edible mushroom, genus Lentinula, belongings to family Marasmiaceae, native to East Asia and widely cultivated for consumption for its health benefits and commercial purpose in many Asian countries(1944). The sweet and neural herb has been used in traditional Chinese as anti-inflammatory(1951)(1952), antioxidative(1952)(1953)(1954), immunodulatory(1949)(1950)(1961), anti androgenic(1955), anti viral(1960) and anti cancer(1956)(1957)(1958) agent and for treatment of hepatitis B(1960), leukemia(1961), lymphoma(1962), frequent flu and colds(1967),....... by enhancing the functions of Lung, Kidney, Liver, Heart, Spleen, Stomach channels(1943).

Chemical Constituents
1. Ganodermic acid G
2. Lucidone A
3. Fungal lysozyme
4. Pachymic acid C
5. Stellasterol
6. OPolyporenic acid
7. Pterocarpin
8. Trifolirhizin
9. Kuraridin
10. Kuraridinol
11. Oxalic acid
12. Etc.(1945)


Shiitake mushroom may be the next potential pharmaceutical target in producing a beneficial medicine for treatment of women with PCOs, as the herb has exhibited anti metabolic syndrome(1946) such as, plasma lipid profiles(1963)(1964), fat deposition(1963)(1966), energy efficiency(1963), fasting glucose(1968), insulin sensitve(1947), lipid abnormality(1948), hypertensive(1967)(1969), anti hyperglycaemic(1968)(1969), anti hyperlipidemic(1964)(1965)(1968), weight control(1970), obesity(1966)(1971), through its carbohydrate and lipid metabolism(1965).......induced complications of diabetes(1969)(1971) and cardiovascular disease(1967).

4. Xi yang shen(Panax quinquefolium L., American ginseng)
North America Ginseng is also known as P. quinquefolius American ginseng (root), is considered as yin promoting, as the roots is growth from a hot area, according to traditional Chinese medicine(1972). Ginseng North America has been used in TCM as anti cancers(1974)(1975)(1976), anti psychotic(1977)(1979), anti inflammatory(1980)(1981) and antioxidant(1979)(1982), immumomodulatory(1983)(1984), CNS protective(1979)(1978)(1981), wound healing(1979) advocate and to relive pain(1991)(1992) and treat sexual dysfunction(1985)(1986), quench thirst(1973), heal deficiency of lungs(1973)and chronic asthma(1987) and to treat fatigue(1988)(1989), chronic fever(1990),... by enhancing heart, lung and kidney channels(1973).

Chemical constituents(1973)
1. Octanol
2. Hexanoic acid
3. Pindecane
4. Pinocarveol
5. Octanoic acid
7. Dodecane
8. 3-phenylhexane
9. 1-phenylhexane
10. Pulegone
11. Beta-farnesene
12. Alpha-curcumene,
13. Alpha-cedrene
14. Beta-bisabolene
15. Beta-caryophyllene
16. Caproic acid
17. Heptanoic acid
18. Caprylic acid
19. Nonanoic acid
20. Palmitic acid
21. stearic acid
22. octadecenoic acid
23. Linoleic acid
24. Etc.

Xi yang shen containing a similar ingredients of panax gingseng with opposite cool and warm in nature has found no different for prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome in pharmaceutical single or combined ingredient withdrawal(1994)(1995), The whole herb has exhibited positive effects on islet protection(1994) insulin sensitve(1994)(1995)(1996), hypertensive(1993)(1996), anti hyperglycaemic(1993)(1994), anti hyperlipidemic(1993)(1996), , obesity(1993)(1994), through its carbohydrate(2001)(2003) and lipid metabolism(2002)(2003).......induced complications of diabetes(1999)(2000) and cardiovascular disease(1997)(1998)(1981) through enhancement of stroke volume, ejection fraction, cardiac output, and left ventricle pressure(2003).

5. Reishi mushroom
Reishi mushroom or Lingzhi is a fungal species in the genus Ganoderma, belongings to the family Ganodermataceae, native to Asia. The herb has been use in traditional medicine as anti-cancers(2004)uro protective(2005)(2006) and anti inflammatory(2007)(2008), antioxidant(2010)(2013)(2011), neuro protective(2009)(2012) agent and to enhance immune function(2014)(2015), treat liver injury(2016)(2018) and diseases(2017)(2018), protect against neuron degeneration(2019)(2020),..... by enhancing the functions of Lung, Kidney, Liver, Heart, Spleen, Stomach. channels(2021).

Chemical constituents(2021)
1. Ganodermic acid G
2. Lucidone A
3. Fungal lysozyme
4. Pachymic acid C
5. Stellasterol
6. Polyporenic acid
7. Pterocarpin
8. Trifolirhizin
9. Kuraridin
10. Kuraridinol
11. Oxalic acid
12. Etc.

Epidemiological studies suggested that reishi mushroom may be used for prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome(2022)(2023) and its complications of diabetes(2022)(2024) and cardiovascular disease(2022)(2023)(2024) due its effects on fasting glucose(2028)(2029), insulin sensitve(2029)(2030), lipid abnormality(2031), hypertensive(2032)(2033), anti hyperglycaemic(2010)(2024)(2025), anti hyperlipidemic(2026)(2027), weight control(2034)(2035), obesity(2036).

6. Huang lian
Hu huang Lian or Huang Lian is also known as coptis rhizome. The bitter and cool herb has been used in TCM as anti palette coagulation(2037)(2038), anti arrhythmia(2039)(2040), anti heart failure(2039), anti diabetic(2041)(2042), anti cancer(2044)(2045)(2046), anti inflammatory(2049)(2050) and antioxidant(2048)(2047) advocate and to relief heat toxicity(2051)(2052), indigestion(2053), inflammation of small intestine(2053), diarrhea(2054)(2055), fever(2054), jaundice(2054), insomnia(2056) and relieve pain(2055),,,,,,,,,, as it eliminates empty-Heat and Damp-Heat, clears Heat, etc., by enhancing the functions of heart, large intestine, liver, and stomach channels(2043)

Chemical Constutuents(2043)
1. Berberine
2. Colchicine
3. Coptisine
4. Worenine
5. Palmatine
6. Jatrorrhizine
7. Magnoflorine
8. Kutkin
9. Etc.

Berberine and chemical compound found in huang lian and the whole itself have shown a positive effect in reduced risk of diabetes(2041)(2042) and cardiovascular disease(2057)(2039)(2040)(2058) in women with kidney yin deficiency induced PCOs due to their glucose and lipid metabolism responds(2061) on metabolic syndrome(2064)(2069), including glucose level(2061)(2062), insulin resistance(2059)(2060)(2062), hypertensive(2065)(2066), hyperglycaemia[total cholesterol, triglyceride levels, urinary protein excretion, serum creatinine (Scr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN)](2062)(2063)(2064) anti hyperglycaemic(2042)(2064), obesity(2064)(2067)(2068),.......via immunomodulatory(2070)(2071), antioxidant(2041)(2047)(2048)and anti-inflammatory activities.


Unfortunately, according Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, increasing the systemic exposure of Rhizoma coptidis alkaloids(2071) and over doses of all alkaloids, especially berberine(2072) may induce risk of the acute toxicity.

(See references on the references page)

1. The Holistic Prevention, Management of PCOs analysed through Conventional Medicine Research and Studies(Part I) - The Prevention
2. The Holistic Prevention, Management of PCOs analysed through Conventional Medicine Research and Studies (Part II)- The Conventional Supplement page
3. The Holistic Prevention, Management of PCOs analysed through Conventional Medicine Research and Studies(Part III) - The Weight loss approach
5. The Holistic Prevention, Management of PCOs analysed through Conventional Medicine Research and Studies(Part V) - The TCM approach
7. The Holistic Prevention, Management of PCOs analysed through Conventional Medicine Research and Studies(References page of 700 -1499)