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Sunday, 5 July 2015

The Holistic Prevention, Management and Treatment of PCOs analysed through Conventional Medicine Research and Studies(Part IV) - The Herbal Medicine approach

"The Holistic Prevention, Management and Treatment of PCOs analysed through Conventional Medicine Research and Studies" provides you the accurate information of the use of natural sources to prevent, management and treatment of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome, because all presentations are proven through convention research and studies found in PubMed. This is the second time, a research paper has been written this way to general public that you will not find any where in the net. We would like to provide more of this kind the research, but unfortunately, it is time consuming and burdened financially, we have run out of time and the site will be shut down Monday(July 6, 2015). If you like what you read, please donate generously to our site.
at http://kylejnorton.blogspot.ca/
Kyle J. Norton
                  
      The prevention and management and treatment In Herbal Medicine Perspective(Unedited)

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is unpreventable in Western medicine. Early diagnosis and treatment  may reduce risk of its complications, including infertility, metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, stroke, etc.
                           
Reduce fat intake less than 30% of total calories with a low proportion of saturated fat and high in fiber from predominantly low-glycaemic-index-carbohydrate foods for patients with PCOs(827a). Calorie intake should be distributed between several meals per day with restricted intake of snacks and drinks(827)(828).


                          The fertility herbs

                        Chaste tree berry

Chaste tree berry is a species of Vitex agnus-castus, genus Vitex, belonging to the family Lamiaceae, native to the Mediterranean region used in herbal medicine for thousands of year as anaphrodisiac herb and considered as Queen herb in tonifying female reproductive systems(869), including premenstrual problems(865) and menopause symtoms(866)(867)(868)(869). There was report that reports chaste tree berry stems and leaves used by women as bedding "to cool the heat of lust" during the time of the Thesmophoria(870),

1. Androstenedione
Chaste berry tree contains androstenedione which is the common precursor of female sex hormone by converting to testosterone and the estrogens. through the enzyme aromatase(871) by acting as a as a weak partial agonist(872) of the androgen receptor to reduce risk of hormone imbalance that causes infertility. Unfortunately, Epidemioligical evidences suugested that androstenedione may contribute to the worsening of PCOS features as women with PCOs are found to associate to high concentration of androstenedione(873)(874)(875).

2. Epitestosterone
Epitestosterone is an inactive epimer of the hormone testosterone which has been used to enhance athletic performance for some athelic during competition(876)(877). The phytochemical is also found to to improve sexual development(878), sexual desire and sexual arousal(879) induced fertility.

3. Hydroxyprogesterone and progesterone
Chaste tree contains plant hydroxyprogesterone which is a steroid hormone produced during the synthesis of glucocorticoids and sex steroids(880), including the corticosteroids and the androgens and the estrogens(881). The phytochemical also raises the levels of progesterone if it is loo low and reduces it when it is too high in the women body(882), induced fertility.

4. Iridoid
The herb also contaaining iridoid as a intermediator of the biosynthesis of alkaloids improves the immune system in fighting against inflammation(883) and lessens the risks of immune system abnormal function in production of antibody against sperm invasion(884).

5. Glycoside
Glycoside is a flavonoid acted as an antioxidant in increasing the immune system in fighting against forming of free radical as well as guarding our body against irregular cell browth infection and inflammation(885)(886), and reducing the risk of abnormal function of immune system in production of antibody against sperm invasion(884).

 Side effects
According to Drug.com the most common side effects of taking chaste berry tree include
Acne; cramping; diarrhea; hair loss; headache; increased menstrual flow; stomach pain; tiredness, etc....(887).

                     Angelica sinensis



 Dang Qui (Angelica sinensis) is a herb of Genus Angelica from the family Apiaceae, indigenous to China, used as a Queen herb in traditional Chinese medicine as anti inflammatory(889), antispasmodic(890) and vasodilatory agent(891)(890), and to balance the hormones in women for a normal menstrual cycle and menstruation(890), reduce menopausal syndromes(888) and improve digestive system(890) and immunity(890).

1. Reproductive organs tonic
Traditional Chinese medicine views angelica roots as queen herb which has been used to enhance the productive system(892) for treatment of gynecological diseases(897) such as dysmenorrhea, amenorrhoea, menopause and promote menstrual health(892). It is said that angelica roots has the power to restore any deficiency caused by hormone imbalance(894)(895)(896).

2. Blood tonic
A reproductive blood tonic herb(894) not only help to increase blood production(895) to replace blood loss for women after menstruation(893), but also increases the blood flow to abdominal region(890)(891), for induction of healthy conception.

3. Digestive system
Dangqui consists a didestice system protective effects(898) against gastrointestinal damage, but also increases the digestive system function(890) in absorbing essential vitamins and minerals(890), thereby reducing the risks of infertility caused by nutrients deficiency(899).

4. Blood and qi deficiency
Blood(896) and qi(890)deficiency may lead to irregular menstrual cycle, absence of period or painful period(896). Angelica roots increase blood and qi flow(890), resulting in normalizing the function of reproductive organs(892)(897).

5. Kidney tonic
It is said that angelica root also helps to improve kidney function not only in regulating water and fluid through urinary extraction(900), but also improving kidney normal function in regulating the natural menstrual process(900) of the reproductive organs, induced fertility.

6. Immune system
 Angelica root containing variety chemicals strengthens the immune system(903) in fighting against infection and inflammation(894)(889), thereby decreasing the risk of yeast infection during menstruation(891) as well as forming of irregular cell growth in the reproductive organs(901)(902)(903).

Side effects
1. It may cause skin inflammation and rashes, if it is taken in high dose(904)
2. Since angelica root causes uterus constraction, the herb should be used on pregnant(904) unless with the approval of her herbalist(904).


                      Black cohosh


Black cohosh is a glabrous herbaceous perennial plant, producing large, compound leaves from an underground rhizome and belongs to the family Ranunculaceae used in traditional medicine in treating symptoms of all kinds of gynaecological problems(905), including symptoms of premenstrual tension(907) and menopause(906)

1. Phytoestrogen
Phytoestrogen found it balck cohosh showed to occupy the estrogen receptor sites in women body(908), through it antiestrogenic and extrogenic effects(909), to induce hormone balancing may result in improving the chance of ovulation and fertility(910)(911).

2. Immunity
 Black cohosh processes anti inflammatory(913)(914) and anti oxidant(914) effect through enhancing immune system fighting against microbial(915)(916) invasion and irregular cell growth(917)(918) and other inflammatory diseases(913). According to School of Medicine, Wuhan University black cohosh may be beneficiary for patient with patients with coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis, pulmonary heart disease and thrombosis throught its anti inflammatory effects(912).

3. Metabolic Syndrome
In rat model study, black cohosh and its triterpene-saponins showed to reduce high load with fat tissue in the PFD and in the knee joints, body weight, serum leptin and cholesterol and glucose levels caused by metabolic syndrome, according to University Medical Center Göttingen(919). The consumption of black cohost also effectively decreases enhanced pituitary LH secretion, attenuates body weight gain, plasma lipids and intra-abdominal fat (IAF) accumulation, lowers FPI and has no effects on uterine mass(920).

4. Fertility
Use conjunction with clomiphene citrate, black cohosh induced endometrial thickness, serum progesterone and clinical pregnancy rate and cycle outcomes in some infertile couples(921). According to Assiut University, in the differentiation of  relatively low pregnancy rates in CC induction cycles of clomiphene citrate in infertile couple, follicular-phase supplements imicifuga racemosa or ethinyl oestradiol needed significantly fewer days for adequate follicular maturation, had a thicker endometrium and higher oestradiol concentration at the time of human chorionic gonadotrophin injection with better outcome of pregnancy rate(922)(923).

5. Condense Tannins
It also contains condense tannin, a type of proanthocyanidin which has been used as nutritional and therapeutic supplements in Europe in promoting the function of flavonoids as an antioxdant(924)(925)  to improve Immunity(926)(927) against auto immune response induced infertility(962)(933) and microbial invasion(928)(929), but also maintain DNA integrity about irregular cell growth(930)(931).

6. Nervous Symptoms
Back cohost is said to contain chemical agent  to bind the activities to serotonin receptors(939) in decreasing the risk of depression(936), anxiety(934), sleep problem(935) and emotional and physical stress(937)induced risk of infertility(938).

side effects
1. Common side effects include
In high doses of black cohosh may cause abdominal pain, diarrhea, dizziness, headaches, joint pains, nausea, slow heart rate, tremors, visual dimness, vomiting, and weight gain, according to
University of Maryland Medical Center(941)(943)
2. Liver damage
Over dose of back cohosh may cause liver damage(940).
3. Digestive system
Over dose may cause occasional gastrointestinal discomfort, such as  diarrhea; nausea and vomiting. sweating; constipation(942).
4. Etc. 

            

                             Red Clover


Red clover is an herbaceous, perennial plant, native to Europe, western Asia and northwest Africa, used traditional in treating whooping cough(945), respiratory problems, and skin inflammations(945). menopause symptoms(945)(946)(947) and inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease(944) by purifying the blood and clearing mucus from the lungs(948).

1. Isoflavones
Red clover contains isoflavonoid, one type of phytoestrogen used in regulating the levels of estrogen in the body by occupying the estrogen receptor site(949)(950)(951), through its estrogenic(951) and anti estrogenic(952) effects in hormonal balancing for a better chance for fertility(953).

2. Neuroprotective effects
Formononetin (FMNT), an isoflavone found  in red clover may be next potential candidate used for neurodegenerative disorders(958)(959) in central nervous system as it significantly attenuated the cell loss induced by induced by N-methyl-D-asparate (NMDA) in primary-cultured cortical neurons, according to the study by Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an(954). On central nervous system, the herb also was found effective in improve anxiety(955)(856), profuse sweating, insomnia, memory loss, decreased sexual drives(956), depression(957), etc.

3. Metabolic syndrome(967)
Women with PCOs are associated to increased risk metabolic syndrome such as metabolic syndrome risk factors high blood pressure, obesity, high cholesterol, and insulin resistance. Intake of red clover has shown effectively in reduced total serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels, triglyceride levels,  and increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol(960)(961), lowered cardiovascular risk(962)(963), improved obesity(964) and insulin resistance(965)(966).

4. The weight loss vitamin C
Vitami C found abundantly in red clover has shown strong evidneces epidemiologically in reducing weight loss for obese population, espexially for obese women with PCOs. 
See The weight loss vitamin C for more details
[Vitamin C  and other nutrients deficiency not only is associated to the risk of Obesity(807) but also enhances the risk of lipids, inflammation and insulin resistance(808).
According to the research team at Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, there is an associated link between Obesity and  Zinc and vitamins A and C concentration in in women from rural Mexico, in a fasting blood sample analysis (809).
Although genetic susceptibility to obesity is associated with gene polymorphisms affecting biochemical pathways which also impacted by specific foods and nutrients. According to Dr. Johnston CS., vitamin C depletion is associated to positively related to body mass, individuals with adequate vitamin C status oxidize 30% more fat during a moderate exercise bout than individuals with low vitamin C status(810)

Vitamin C, the protective effect against obesity
Endothelial dysfunction has found to be associated to the incidence of obesity(811). The study of 76 healthy subjects (50 men and 26 women aged 21-45 years) obese subject, showed a positive effect of vitamin C and indomethacin in reduced oxidative stress contributed to endothelial dysfunction in human obesity(812).
In the evaluation of the potential inhibitory activity on α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase by Citrus spp. fruits of Spanish origin, grapefruit, contained higher contents of phytochemicals such as vitamin C, is found to have a great value for nutrition and treatment of diet-related diseases(813).
L-Ascorbic acid in the study, whether  would facilitate the anti-obesity effects of chitosan and psyllium husk in vivo, showed addition of vitamin C in diet  influenced the reduction in body weight gain and food efficiency ratio, and the increase in total fecal weight and fecal fat excretion in guinea pigs fed a high-fat diet(814)]

5. Immunity 
Epidemiological studies suggested that red clover processes tenacious anti oxidant(968)(969) and anti inflmmatory(970)(971) effects in fighting against bacterial and viral infection(972)(973) and inflammation(974), free radical(975)(976) causes of irregular cell growth(970)(977) and protecting DNA integrity(979).

Side effects
1. There are no side effects from red clover, but people takes the herb for the first time may experience headache, nausea, and rash(980).
2. Do not use red clover during pregnancy as the herb may increase the risk for vaginal prolapse before the term(981)
3. Risk of bleeding due to its anticoagulant effects(982).

                      Licorice


See the common herbs used for treatment of PCO
[Gan Cao is also known as Licorice root. The sweet and neutral herb has been used in TCM as anti allergy(856), anti inflammation(855), anti ulcer(857), anti convulsion(858), oxidative stress(858) and to treat stomach weakness, tired and lack of strength, palpitation and short of breath, cough with abundance of phlegm, stomach and solar plexus pain(859), etc., as it tonifies the Spleen, benefits the Qi, moistens the Lungs, calms cough, deaf or acute pain, by enhancing all 12 channels(859). Licorice, in a review of 33 studies of herbal medicine for the management of polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS), showed a stronge evidences in improved metabolic hormone profile and improved fertility outcomes and  regulation of ovulation and inhibition of hyperandrogenism in PCOS(860). In model rats experiment, Ganshao Paste (CGP), also decreased serum levels of LH, T, and FSH and increased of serum estradiol (E2), and progesterone (P)(861)(860)(865). According to University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, licorice may have a potential effect on metabolic syndrome(862) in women with PCOs.]

2. Blow flow
Licorice improves the blood flow in the body by exerting its anti thrombosis(983) and inhibiting the levels of bad cholesterol(984)(985) and triglyceride levels(985) and  increasing HDL-cholesterolcontent(984) in reduced risk of cardiovascular disease(985) and blood stagnation(897) in the abdominal region induced induced infertility(986).

3. Glycyrrhizin
Glycyrrhizin, one of main ingredient from licorice, exhibited anti inflammatory effect pharmacologically in treatment of inflammatory diseases(988)(989)(990), lowered high serum testosterone levels in oligomenorrheic or amenorrheic women, and induced conception in some women(991). As antioxidant, the phytochemical also inhibit irregular cell growth(992)(993) and microbial invasion(994)(995) causes of cancers(992)(993) and infection and inflammation(994)(995) respectively. in adrenocortical function and behavour, it also regulated the levels of cortisol(996), induced by over production of serotonin cause of hormone imbalance(997).

4.  Phytoestrogen
See phytoestrogen in black cohosh
[Phytoestrogen found it balck cohosh showed to occupy the estrogen receptor sites in women body(908), through it antiestrogenic and extrogenic effects(909), to induce hormone balancing may result in improving the chance of ovulation and fertility(910)(911)].

5. Lecithin
Lecithin is a fat like substance called a phospholipid improved lipid transfer, cholesterol efflux, HDL genesis and and remodeling at the blood-brain barrier (BBB)(998). against cells from oxidation surrounding the brain(999), in reducing psychotic symptoms(1002) such as stress(1000)(1001), and depression(1002) .
Side effects
1. It may raise blood pressure(1003)(1004(1006)
2. Long term usage of large dosage can also cause edema(1004)(1006) and hypokalemia(1004)(1005)(1006).
3. Overdose can be toxic(106), in inducing rhabdomyolysis or myoglobinuria(1006).
4. Etc. 


                                        White willow

White willow is also known as salix alba in herbal medicine, native to Europe and western and central Asia, used in traditional medicine as pain reliever(1007)(1008), anticancer(1009)(1010), antimicrobial(1013), antioxidant(1014)(1015), anti-inflammatory(1011)(1012) and fertility enhancing herb(1016).

1, Antiestrigenic effects
White willow processes antiestrigenic effects(1017) by blocking proliferation in hypersensitive cells (1018) which cause estrogenic diseases, including breast cancer(1019) and metabolism imbalance(1020) diseases, such as obesity and diabetes(1021).

2. Salicylic acid
Salicylic acid, a chemical compound converted from salincin found abundantly in white willow has shown to process anti acne(1022)(1023) one of many symptoms of PCOs) effects, probably through its antioxidant activity(1026) in blocking elevated production of sebum by hyperactive sebaceous glands and blockage of the follicle(1022). According to Telemark Hospital, the acid may also be beneficiary for increased the clinical pregnancy rate when used conjunction with vitro fertilisation (IVF)/intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)(1024) and protective against fetal losses(1025), through its anti antithrombotic property(1025). The synthetic version of salicylic acid has also shown to consisting aspirin's cardioprotective effects through its antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory actions(1027).

3. Immune system
 The antioxidant(1028)(1029) and anti inflammatory(1030)(1031) effects of white willow enhance immune system fighting against microbial invasion and guarding our body DNA integrity(1033) against irregular cell growth(1032)(1033) through inhibiting the effect of intermediate enzymes and other mechanisms(1027)

d. Vitamin C
Natural vitamin polypeptide C white willow found in white willow not only is found to consist the weight loss property(See the weight loss vitamin C)[
Vitami C found abundantly in red clover has shown strong evidneces epidemiologically in reducing weight loss for obese population, espexially for obese women with PCOs. 
See The weight loss vitamin C for more details
[Vitamin C  and other nutrients deficiency not only is associated to the risk of Obesity(807) but also enhances the risk of lipids, inflammation and insulin resistance(808).
According to the research team at Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, there is an associated link between Obesity and  Zinc and vitamins A and C concentration in in women from rural Mexico, in a fasting blood sample analysis (809).
Although genetic susceptibility to obesity is associated with gene polymorphisms affecting biochemical pathways which also impacted by specific foods and nutrients. According to Dr. Johnston CS., vitamin C depletion is associated to positively related to body mass, individuals with adequate vitamin C status oxidize 30% more fat during a moderate exercise bout than individuals with low vitamin C status(810)

Vitamin C, the protective effect against obesity
Endothelial dysfunction has found to be associated to the incidence of obesity(811). The study of 76 healthy subjects (50 men and 26 women aged 21-45 years) obese subject, showed a positive effect of vitamin C and indomethacin in reduced oxidative stress contributed to endothelial dysfunction in human obesity(812).
In the evaluation of the potential inhibitory activity on α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase by Citrus spp. fruits of Spanish origin, grapefruit, contained higher contents of phytochemicals such as vitamin C, is found to have a great value for nutrition and treatment of diet-related diseases(813).
L-Ascorbic acid in the study, whether  would facilitate the anti-obesity effects of chitosan and psyllium husk in vivo, showed addition of vitamin C in diet  influenced the reduction in body weight gain and food efficiency ratio, and the increase in total fecal weight and fecal fat excretion in guinea pigs fed a high-fat diet(814)]
  but also improves the immune function in fighting against the forming of free radicals(1034) and foreign invasion(1035) but also increases the blood flow to the reproductive organ(1036)(1037)(1038) through reducing oxidant stress, increasing NO bioavailability(1037) of which may reduce risk sexual libido(1038) and enhance the chance of conception(1039)(1040)(1041).

Side effects
1. Risk of anaphylactic reaction to patients with a history of allergy to salicylates(1042).
2. Over dose of white willow may cause digestive disorder such as nausea and stomachache(1044)
3. Do not use the herb(1043)
4.  If you are aspirin allergy/sensitivity,
5. If you are taking anticoagulants or "blood thinners," and
6. On children with flu-like symptoms or Reye's syndrome.
(4,5,6) According to author of the PCOS section in Dr. Romm’s 2010 book Botanical Medicine for Women’s Health (Churchill Livingstone, 2010), Angela Hywood, ND, illustrates the potential that herbs offer for this complex condition by discussing a successful case report.

The insulin resistance improvement and/or anti metabolic syndrome herbs 

          Astragalus (Astragalus membranaceus)(1045)

Huang Qi or Bei Qi is also known as Astragalus root. The sweet herb has been used as diuretic agent and to lower blood pressure, increase blood pressure, lessens proteinuria, improve endurance, protect liver function, regulate blood sugar, etc. as it tonifies Qi, raises Yang, strengthens the Defensive-Qi and the Exterior, expels toxins, etc. by enhancing the functions of lung and spleen channels(1045).

Ingredients
1. Astragaloside I,
2. Astragaloside II,
3. Daucosterol,
3. Beta-sitosterol,
4. Palmitic acid
5. Astragalus saponin A,B,C
6. Astramenbrangenin
7. Kumatakenin,
8. Choline,
9. Betaine,
10. Folic acid
11. Calyxosin,
12. Formononetin,
13. Cycloastragenol,
14. Astragaloside III,IV
15. Antibacterial ingredient,
16. L-3-hydroxy-9-methoxpterocarpan
17. Etc.

Epidemiological studies showed that stragalus polysaccharides (APS) ameliorates insulin resistance(1046)(1047) (IR) in rat cells and to elucidate the associated mechanisms, including increasing adiponectin secretion and reducing IL-6 secretion(1046), decreasing myostatin expression(1047), improving beta cell function(1049), regulating insulin signaling in insulin-resistant skeletal muscle(1047)(1048). insulin resistance related mRNA expression(1049), etc.
In metabolic syndrome, including increased body weight(1050), mild hypertension(1050), hyper insulinemia(1050), hyper triglyceridemia(1050), impaired glucose tolerance(1050)(1053) and impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation(1050)(1051)(1052), astragaloside IV, a major constituent found in astragalus showed effectively in ameliorating metabolic syndrome(1050)(1052), probably through its antioxidant(1051), inhibition of abnormal TNF-alpha-induced intracellular free Ca(2+) accumulation in endothelial cells(1052), decreasing the elevated expression and activity in the skeletal muscles(1053).

                                         Alfalfa(1054) 

Alfalfa is a flowering plant in the genus Medicago, belonging to the family Fabaceae, It has been cultivated all over the world as hay for cattle feeding. The leaves, sprouts, and seeds to make medicine has been used in traditional medicine over thousands of year to treat high cholesterol, asthma, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, enhance digestive system, bleeding disorder, kidney and urinary tract infection, etc. North American aboriginal has used Alfalfa seed as food, such as making bread and mush(1054).

Nutrients
1. Essential amino acids
2. Calcium
3. Magnesium
4. Potassium
5. Iron
6. Phosphorus
7. Zinc
8. Beta carotene
9. vitamin C
10. vitamins D
11.Vitamin E
12. Vitamin K
13. Flavones
14. Isoflavones
15. Sterols
16. Derivatives of coumarin
17. Etc.

In diabetes, alfalfa exhibited prevention of the onset of developing Type 1 Diabetes(1056)
diabetogenic or anti-diabetic potentials(1055), through its estrogenic activity in modulation of diabetes(1055), protection against pancreas from autoimmune destruction(1056), antihyperglycaemic(1057), insulin-releasing and insulin-like activity(1057).
 The Insulin resistance improvement and/or anti metabolic syndrome herbs: Licorice
See fertility herbs Licorice for more infomation
[Gan Cao is also known as Licorice root. The sweet and neutral herb has been used in TCM as anti allergy(856), anti inflammation(855), anti ulcer(857), anti convulsion(858), oxidative stress(858) and to treat stomach weakness, tired and lack of strength, palpitation and short of breath, cough with abundance of phlegm, stomach and solar plexus pain(859), etc., as it tonifies the Spleen, benefits the Qi, moistens the Lungs, calms cough, deaf or acute pain, by enhancing all 12 channels(859). Licorice, in a review of 33 studies of herbal medicine for the management of polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS), showed a stronge evidences in improved metabolic hormone profile and improved fertility outcomes and  regulation of ovulation and inhibition of hyperandrogenism in PCOS(860). In model rats experiment, Ganshao Paste (CGP), also decreased serum levels of LH, T, and FSH and increased of serum estradiol (E2), and progesterone (P)(861)(860)(865). According to University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, licorice may have a potential effect on metabolic syndrome(862) in women with PCOs.

2. Blow flow
Licorice improves the blood flow in the body by exerting its anti thrombosis(983) and inhibiting the levels of bad cholesterol(984)(985) and triglyceride levels(985) and  increasing HDL-cholesterolcontent(984) in reduced risk of cardiovascular disease(985) and blood stagnation(897) in the abdominal region induced induced infertility(986).

3. Glycyrrhizin
Glycyrrhizin, one of main ingredient from licorice, exhibited anti inflammatory effect pharmacologically in treatment of inflammatory diseases(988)(989)(990), lowered high serum testosterone levels in oligomenorrheic or amenorrheic women, and induced conception in some women(991). As antioxidant, the phytochemical also inhibit irregular cell growth(992)(993) and microbial invasion(994)(995) causes of cancers(992)(993) and infection and inflammation(994)(995) respectively. in adrenocortical function and behavour, it also regulated the levels of cortisol(996), induced by over production of serotonin cause of hormone imbalance(997).

4.  Phytoestrogen
See phytoestrogen in black cohosh
[Phytoestrogen found it balck cohosh showed to occupy the estrogen receptor sites in women body(908), through it antiestrogenic and extrogenic effects(909), to induce hormone balancing may result in improving the chance of ovulation and fertility(910)(911)].

5. Lecithin
Lecithin is a fat like substance called a phospholipid improved lipid transfer, cholesterol efflux, HDL genesis and and remodeling at the blood-brain barrier (BBB)(998). against cells from oxidation surrounding the brain(999), in reducing psychotic symptoms(1002) such as stress(1000)(1001), and depression(1002).
Side effects
1. It may raise blood pressure(1003)(1004(1006)
2. Long term usage of large dosage can also cause edema(1004)(1006) and hypokalemia(1004)(1005)(1006).
3. Overdose can be toxic(106), in inducing rhabdomyolysis or myoglobinuria(1006).
4. Etc.]
Phytochemicals(1058)
1. Glycyrrhizic acid
2. Licochalcone A
3. Licochalcone B
4. Licoflavone
5. Liquiritin
5. Liquiritigenin
7. Isoliquiritigenin
8. Ononins
9. 4′7-dihydroxyflavone
10. Glycyrrhetinic acid 
11. 11-deoxyglycyrrhetinic acid
12. β-sitosterol
13. Etc.
Licorice's phytochemicals, especially  glycyrrhizin,  have shown efffectively in ameliorated insulin resistance(1059)(1061)(1063)(1064), hyperglycemia(1059)(1060), dyslipidemia(1059)(1063) and oxidative stress(1064) in fructose-induced metabolic syndrome(1059)(1061)(1063) in animal(1059)(1060)(1061)models, probably through its interference of the development of visceral obesity(1064) and cellular derailments that are responsible for the development of metabolic syndrome(1062), anti inflammatory(1062),  antioxidant(1062) and an associated with a decrease in tissue lipid deposition(1063) effects.

                        Green Tea(1065)


Green tea contains more amount of antioxidants than any drinks or food with the same volume, and is the leaves of Camellia sinensis, undergone minimal oxidation during processing, originated from China. Green tea has been a precious drink in traditional Chinese culture and used exceptional in socialization for more than 4000 thousand years. Because of their health benefits, they have been cultivated for commercial purposes all over the world(1065).

Ingredients
1. Epigallocatechin gallate
2. Flavonoids
3. Tannins
4. Caffeine
5. Polyphenols
6. Boheic acid
7. Theophylline
8. Theobromine
9. Anthocyanins
10. Gallic acid
11. Etc.

Epidemiological studies, linking green tea in reduced risk of prevented the development of insulin resistance(1066)(1067) and metabolic sundrome such as obesity(1068)(1069)(1073), hypertension(1070)(1071)  hypercholesterolemia and hyperglycemia(1072)(1073), diabetes(1074)(1075)... have produced some statistic results.
In inslunin resistances, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the major chemical constituents of green tea effectively modulate of insulin productionb through inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose uptake(1076)(1078)(1077) via some mechnisms, including attenuated inflammatory cytokine levels(1076), inhibition of the GLUT4(the insulin-regulated glucose transporter found primarily in adipose tissues and striated muscle (skeletal and cardiac).) translocation(1077), AMPK pathways(an enzyme that plays a role in cellular energy homeostasis)(1078)....
In metabolic synfrome, green tea extract, polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate significantly controled abnormalities linked to metabolic syndrome (MS)(1079)(1080)(1083)(1084)(1085) through  influence the maintenance of weight loss(1079)(1082)(1084), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol(1079), triglycerides(1079), and glucose concentrations(1079)(1080), counteracted endothelial dysfunction(1080)(1081) and ameliorated metabolic insulin resistance(1080) in skeletal muscle and liver(1080).


                               Cinnamon(1086)

Cinnamon is a spice derived from the inner bark of tree, native to South East Asia, of over 300 species of the genus Cinnamomum, belongings to the family Lauraceae used in herbal and traditional medicine as anti-microbial agent(1087) and to improve reproductive organs(1088), prevent flatulence(1089) and menstrual cramping(1087), treat gastrointestinal complaints(1089), diarrhea(1087), bad breath(1090), headache(1087), etc.(1086)(1087).

Ingredients(1087)
1. Cinnamic aldehyde
2.Cinnamyl acetate
3. Eugenol
4. Aldehyde
5. Pinene
6. Coumarins
7. Cinnzeylanol
8. Cinnzeylanine
 9. Safrol
10. Methylhydroxy chalcone polymer (MHCP)

Epidemiological studies suggested that cinnamon cocsist a sgnificant anti insulin resistance(1091)(1092)(1094) and anti metabolic syndrome(1093)(1094)(1095)(1096)(1097) properties, such as lowering total cholesterol(1093), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(1093) and improving high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(1093), may be due to its antihyperglycaemic (1091)(1093) and potential to reduce postprandial blood glucose levels(1091)(1092), liver fat(1098) and and  improved glucose homeostasis(1098) properties, by regulating the mechanisms of-medicated glucose and lipid metabolism(1099), such as decreased the mRNA expression of  inflammatory cytokine(TNF-alpha) in adipose tissue(1100) and upregulated mRNA expression of insulin-regulated membrane trafficking(1100) and whole body glucose homeostasi(GLUT-4) in skeletal muscle(1100).

The stress response and management herbs

Stress in a natural reaction of human fight or fight response induced by pressure due to such as an environmental condition or a stimulus. Long term stress can cause deleterious and cumulative effects on human body(1104), including emotional or cognitive problems, such as an increased risk of attentional deficit/hyperactivity, anxiety, and language delay(1103), especially for people with chronic illness, including women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOs)(1105). 

                 Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera)


Ashwagandha(Withania somnifera), also known as Indian Ginseng is a nightshade plant belongings to the family Solanaceae, native to India, northern Africa, and the Middle East used in Ayurvedic medicine over 3000 years(1101) as antitumors(1107)(1108), anti ulcers(1111), anti-stress(1112)(1115)(1118), cognition Dysfunction(1109)(1110)(1118), anti-inflammatory(1113)(1116), antioxidant(1114)(1117), immunomoduratory(1120)(1121), anti-aging(1119), etc., herbal medicine.

Phytochemicals(1102)
1. Isopelletierine
2. Anaferine
3. Cuseohygrine
4. Anahygrine
5. Withanolides
6. Withaferins
7. Saponins
8. Sitoindosides
9. Acylsterylglucosides
10. Z-Guggulsterone(1106)
10. Etc. 

Epidemiological strong evidences suggested that herbal ashwagandha processes anti stress related disorders( induced by oxidative stress(1122)(1123) and long term stress(1123) effects, probably through its antioxidant(1123)(1124)(1126), anti-stress(1112)(1115)(1118), anti-inflammatory(1113)(1116), antioxidant(1114)(1117), immunomoduratory(1120)(1121) effects. In rat model, hydroalcoholic extract enhances its antioxidant effect against psychological symptoms(1132) induced by long term stress, such as reduced motor performance(1124), cognitive impairmen(1125)(1126, anxiety(1127)(1128), sleep disorder(1129)(1130), depression(1131), etc. In phyisological symptoms, the herb has showed to reduce fatigue(1133) risk of hypertension(1134), risk of stroke(1135). risk of diabetes(1136), improve energy(1132), etc.


                           Ginseng (Panax spp.)

(See Herbal treatment for PCOs for more information)
[ Ginseng Asia is also known as Panax ginseng. Since it has been grown in the cold places in the Asian, Asian ginseng is considered as yang promoting, according to traditional Chinese medicine.
Korean red ginseng extract (KRGE) in the experiment in PCOs induced rodent, improved PCO-related ovarian dysfunction(830). In rat model, induced by injection of estradiol valerate (EV), the extract also regulated sympathetic nerve activity by significantly lower expression of NGF protein (involved in the growth of peripheral nerve cells) and NGF mRNA(the form of RNA that carries information from DNA) involved in the abnormal process caused by steroid-induced PCO(830). Also, in the experiment of Ginseng total saponins (GTS) involved polycystic ovaries induced by a single intramuscular injection of 4 mg estradiol valerate (EV) in rats, GTS decreased the expression of NGF in ovary tissue(831)].

(See herbal medicine for weight loss)
[Ginseng is a slow-growing perennial plants with fleshy roots, the genus Panax, belonging to the family Araliaceae. Depending to the climate where it grows, ginseng can be classified mainly into Panax ginseng Asian ginseng (root), Red ginseng, wild ginseng, American ginseng (root)(791).
In 10 obese middle-aged Korean women who took Panax ginseng extracts for 8 wk, showed  effectively in influence on gut microbiota in promoting weigh loss but depending to the composition of gut microbiota prior to ginseng intake(792). In mice fed on a high-fat diet, ginseng saponin and ginsenosides not only exerted anti-obesity effects via the modulation of physiological lipid metabolism in vivo or intracellular signalling in cell culture systems, but also promoted anti-obesity effects, through abnormal physiology via HFD. Leptin, insulin, and adiponectin, which carry out critical functions in energy and lipid metabolism(793)].

The Phytochemicals
1. Ginsenoside
2.  Notoginsenoside
3.  Chikusetsuaponin IV
4. Panaxynol
5. Ginsenyne
6. Alpha pansinsene
7. Beta pansinsene
8. Beta farnesene
9. Bicyclogermacrene
10. Beta elemene
11. Gama elemene
12. Alpha neodovene
13. Beta neodovene
14. Alpha humulene
15. Beta humulene
16. Caryophyllene
17. Beta gurjunene
18. Alpha gurjunene
19. Citric acid
20.  Isocitric acid
21.  Fumaric acid
22. Oleic acid,
23. Linoleic acid
24. Beta sitosterol
25. Stigmasterol
26. Daucosterol
27. Sitosteryl-o-(6-O-fatty acyl)-glucpyranoside
28. Etc.

 Panax ginseng, native to Korea, one of most frequent and wonderful used over thousand years in herbal medicine for improvement of male over all health due to aging diminished steroidal hormone in Asian(1138)  has found to process significant anti-stress (1137)(1143)(1144), such as adapt to stress(1138) through reverted cholesterol (CL), creatine kinase (CK) activity(1137)  anti oxidative stress(1139)(1142)(1146) through its elevation in catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities as scavenger enzymes(1139). antioxidant effects(1140).
In immobilized mice, orally administered ginsenoside Rb1 found in Panax ginseng exhibited its anti stress effects through regulation of serum levels of corticosterone(1145) and interleukin (IL)-6(1141). 
In chronic unpredictable mild stress rat model, ginsenosides also ameliorated stress symptoms of depression(1147)(1149)(1150) through significantly suppressed behavioral and biochemical changes(1147) and cognitive impairment, neuroinflammation, and biochemical alterations through improved corticosterone levels; and attenuated oxidative-nitrergic stress(1148).
In stress induced metabolic syndrome(1151), ginseng' saponins (ginsenosides) are proven effectively for its properties of anti-hyperglycemia, insulin sensitization, islet protection, anti-obesity and anti-oxidation in many model systems, according to Louisana State University System(1152).

                              Licorice


(See herbal treatment of PCOs for more information)
[Gan Cao is also known as Licorice root. The sweet and neutral herb has been used in TCM as anti allergy(856), anti inflammation(855), anti ulcer(857), anti convulsion(858) agent  and to treat stomach weakness, tired and lack of strength, cough with abundance of phlegm, stomach and solar plexus pain, and improve cardiac function(855), etc., as it tonifies the Spleen, benefits the Qi, moistens the Lungs, calms cough, deaf or acute pain, by enhancing all 12 channels(859).
In treatment of PCOs(862), combination of licorice and 100 mg spironolactone showed the activation of the renin-aldosterone system in lowering blood pressure and water (fluid) balance(860). reducing the prevalence of side effects related to the diuretic activity of spironolactone(860). In model rats experiment, Ganshao Paste (CGP), showed the decrease of serum levels of LH, T, and FSH and increase of serum estradiol (E2), and progesterone (P)(861)(865)].

(See The Insulin resistance improvement and/or anti metabolic syndrome herbs: Licorice for more information)
1. PCOs
[ Licorice, in a review of 33 studies of herbal medicine for the management of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), showed a stronge evidences in improved metabolic hormone profile and improved fertility outcomes and  regulation of ovulation and inhibition of hyperandrogenism in PCOS(860). In model rats experiment, Ganshao Paste (CGP), also decreased serum levels of LH, T, and FSH and increased of serum estradiol (E2), and progesterone (P)(861)(860)(865). According to University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, licorice may have a potential effect on metabolic syndrome(862) in women with PCOs.

2. Blow flow
Licorice improves the blood flow in the body by exerting its anti thrombosis(983) and inhibiting the levels of bad cholesterol(984)(985) and triglyceride levels(985) and  increasing HDL-cholesterolcontent(984) in reduced risk of cardiovascular disease(985) and blood stagnation(897) in the abdominal region induced induced infertility(986).

3. Glycyrrhizin
Glycyrrhizin, one of main ingredient from licorice, exhibited anti inflammatory effect pharmacologically in treatment of inflammatory diseases(988)(989)(990), lowered high serum testosterone levels in oligomenorrheic or amenorrheic women, and induced conception in some women(991). As antioxidant, the phytochemical also inhibit irregular cell growth(992)(993) and microbial invasion(994)(995) causes of cancers(992)(993) and infection and inflammation(994)(995) respectively. in adrenocortical function and behavour, it also regulated the levels of cortisol(996), induced by over production of serotonin cause of hormone imbalance(997).

4.  Phytoestrogen
See phytoestrogen in black cohosh
[Phytoestrogen found it balck cohosh showed to occupy the estrogen receptor sites in women body(908), through it antiestrogenic and extrogenic effects(909), to induce hormone balancing may result in improving the chance of ovulation and fertility(910)(911)].

5. Lecithin
Lecithin is a fat like substance called a phospholipid improved lipid transfer, cholesterol efflux, HDL genesis and and remodeling at the blood-brain barrier (BBB)(998). against cells from oxidation surrounding the brain(999), in reducing psychotic symptoms(1002) such as stress(1000)(1001), and depression(1002).
Side effects
1. It may raise blood pressure(1003)(1004(1006)
2. Long term usage of large dosage can also cause edema(1004)(1006) and hypokalemia(1004)(1005)(1006).
3. Overdose can be toxic(106), in inducing rhabdomyolysis or myoglobinuria(1006).
4. Etc.]
Phytochemicals(1058)
1. Glycyrrhizic acid
2. Licochalcone A
3. Licochalcone B
4. Licoflavone
5. Liquiritin
5. Liquiritigenin
7. Isoliquiritigenin
8. Ononins
9. 4′7-dihydroxyflavone
10. Glycyrrhetinic acid 
11. 11-deoxyglycyrrhetinic acid
12. β-sitosterol
13. Etc.
Licorice's phytochemicals, especially  glycyrrhizin,  have shown efffectively in ameliorated insulin resistance(1059)(1061)(1063)(1064), hyperglycemia(1059)(1060), dyslipidemia(1059)(1063) and oxidative stress(1064) in fructose-induced metabolic syndrome(1059)(1061)(1063) in animal(1059)(1060)(1061)models, probably through its interference of the development of visceral obesity(1064) and cellular derailments that are responsible for the development of metabolic syndrome(1062), anti inflammatory(1062), antioxidant(1062) and an associated with a decrease in tissue lipid deposition(1063) effects].

In chronic unpredictable stress rat model, total flavonoids extract(1153) (licorice flavonoids, LF) and liquiritin(1154), a phyochemical found in locorice exerted anti-depressive(1153)(1154)(1155) and anti-cognitive impairment(1156) property through total flavonoids extract neurogenesis protective effect(1153) and defense of liquiritin and flavonoids extract against oxidative stress(1154)(1156).
Yokukansan, a traditional Japanese formula, containing licorice showed effectively in amelioration of   behavioral symptoms, such as aggressiveness, excitability, and hallucination, through reduced stress  increased the serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptors density on the plasma membrane of the prefrontal cortex (PFC)(1158).
In  high-glucose stress, Glabridin(1159)(1160), an isoflavan from licorice root reduced high-glucose stress(1159)(1160) through its anti inflammatory activity(1159), up-regulates manganese superoxide dismutase, catalase and paraoxonase 2(1160).
In anti oxidative stress, licorice showed to contribute to their overall health promoting pharmacological effects against free radicals(1161)(1162)(1163)(1164) induced diseases such as cancer(1161), cardiac dysfunction(1162) liver diosease(1164), etc., through its anti-inflammatory(1161)(1163)(1164), anti-oxidant activities(1161)(1162)(1163)(1164).
According to University of Western Sydney, Glycyrrhiza glabra, one of Chinese herbs, exhibited strong evidences of neuroprotective activity for promotion of healthy ageing and longevity(1157).


                 Rhodiola (Rhodiola rosea) 


Rhodiola Rosea, one of the perennial plant grows in coldest region in the world, including the Arctic, is a genus Rhodiola, belongings to the family Crassulaceae,  used  in traditional medicine as an antiaging(1167) agent, and to treat fatigue(1168)(1169), depression(1170)(1171), anemia(1172), impotence(1173), inflammation(1174), infections(1175), nervous system disorders(1176)(1177), enhance physical endurance(1178), and increase an organism's resistance to stress(1167)(1179).etc.

Phytochemicals(1165)(1166)
1 .Salidroside
2. Sosavin
3. Rosin
4. Sosarin
5. Tyrosol
6. Lignan major compounds in the
7. Heterodontoside,
8. Viridoside
9. Mongrhoside
10. Cyanogenic glucoside rhodiocyanoside A
11. Epigallocatechin and gallate
12 . Epiga
13. Etc.

In an evaluating anti-stress effects, rhodiola rosea, exhibited  positive effects on mental and physical performance under stress(1180)(1181), improved attention and cognitive function associated with its antidepressant activity(1180)(1182) and stress-protective effect of adaptogen(1181), through regulation of nitric oxide (NO) and cortisol levels(1180)(1181).
According to Gesundheitsbezirk Bozen,, rhodiola rosea active substance phenylpropanoide also processed sedative, anti-depressive(1180) and stress-modulated properties through stimulating the distribution of dopamine and serotonin(1182).
In animal model, the herb showed to display antidepressant(1181)(1182)(1184), adaptogenic(1181)(1184), anxiolytic(1184)(1186), nociceptive(1183)(1185) and locomotor activities(1186) induced by intense physical and psychological stress(1183).
In oxidative stress induced animal models, rhodiola is effective in the empowerment of performance(1187), modulation of the immune system(1187) against oxidative damage(1187).
Salidroside (SAL), an active component of Rhodiola rosea protect endothelium(1189) against H2O2-induced endothelial dysfunction(1188)(1189) and oxidative-stress-associated cardiovascular dysfunction(1189) through preventing the overactivation of oxidative stress-related downstream signaling pathways(1188).


              Rhaponticum or Maral root 

Rhaponticum also known as Maral root, is an herbaceous perennial plant belongings  the family Asteraceae, used in traditional Siberian, Russian and Chinese medicine as anti-depressant(1191)(1192), anti anxiety(1192), anti menopausal complaints(1192)(1193), antioxidant(1194)(1195), immunomodulatory(1194)(1195), anticancerogenic(1194)(1196)(1197), antimicrobial(1194)(1195)(1198)(1199) and adaptogen agent(1194) and to treat impotence(1194), enhance mental and physical performance(1194)(1200), support the nervous(1194)(1201) and cardiovascular system(1194)(1202)(1203), improve work capacity(1194), etc.


Phytochemicals(1190)
1. Rosavin
2. Rosin
3. Rosarin
4. Salidroside
5. Ecdysteroids
6. Flavonoids
7. Phenolic acids
8. Polyacetylenes,
9. Sesquiterpene lactones
10. Triterpenoid glycosides
11. Terpenes
12. Etc.

In in Wistar rats model, N-feruloylserotonins, isolated from the seeds of Leuzea carthamoides (WILLD.) DC, showed effectively in selective stress-reducing effects against stress-sensitive, such as reduced anxiety in the high-pain(1005).
In AdMax formulas, containing  Leuzea carthamoides Iljin, Rhodiola rosea L., Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim, and from dry berries of Schizandra chinensis Baill, improve response to stimulus and stress, physical endurance and counteract fatigue accordiung to Genext Research, Inc.(1006).
According to Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, herbal rhaponticum also processed anti metabolic syndrome(1204) such as serum lipid profile(1207)(1204), corticosterone, also known as 17-deoxycortisol and 11β,21-dihydroprogesterone,(1208)(1204) and cytokine concentrations(1209)(1204), glucose tolerance(1211)(1204), systolic blood pressure(1212)(1204), triacylglycerol accumulation(1207)(1204)(1204) and its induction of inflammation(1210)(1204), stress(1204)(1214), and hepatic steatosis(1213) in rat model(1004).
In Oxidative(respiratory) burst, is a chain reaction of rapid release of reactive oxygen species (superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide) from different types of cells, N-feruloylserotonin (N-f-5HT) isomers(1215)(1216)) isolated from seeds of Leuzea carthamoides (Wild) DC, inhibited dose-dependent oxidative burst in human through its pharmacological activity against oxidative stress in ischemia-reperfusion, inflammation and other pathological conditions(1215)(1216).


               Schisandra (Wu Wei Zi)


Schisandra also is known as Wu Wei Zi, a twining shrub living its life by climbing on other vegetation, belongings to the family Schisandraceae, native to Asia and North America, The warm, sweet, bitter, sour, acrid, salty herb has been used in tradional Chinese medicine as antioxidant(1218)(1219), anti stress(1220)(1221), anti microbial(1224)(1225)(1226) agent and to improve metabolism(1227)(1228), enhance central nervous system(1229)(1230)(1233), treat hypertension(1231)(1232) and hypotension during exhaustion of circulatory function(1217), coughing(1234)(12135), insomnia(1237), premenstrual syndrome (PMS)(1239), menopausal symptoms(1240), depression(1233), irritability(1233), erectile dysfunction (ED)(1238), lower cholesterol(1241) and regulate blood glucose(1233), improve  memory(1222)(1223), etc.
by promoting function of lung and kidney channels(1217).

Phytochemicals(1217)
1. Schizandrin
2. Deoxyschisandrin
3. Gamma-schisandrin
4. Schisandrol
5. Pseudo-gamma-schisandrin
6. Schizandrate B
7. Gomisin A, B, C, F, G
8. Angeloylgomisin H
9. Tigloylgomisin H
10. Benzoylgomisin H
11. Epigomisin O
12. Malic acid
13. Citric acid
14. Tartaric acid
15. Succinic acid
16. A-pinene
17. Camphene
18. B-pinene
19. Byrcene
20. A-terpinene
21. Limonene
22. G-terpinene
23. P-cymene
24. Etc.

In chronic psychological stress male rat model, schisandra protect against stress induced complications such as carbohydrate metabolism(1227) and neurosis, psychogenic depression, astheno-depressive states, schizophrenia and alcoholism disorders(1233) and improved mental performance(1233).through its reduction of the levels of corticosterone (CORT) and glucose and protect the structure of the adrenal cortex(1227).
In physiological stress, the herbal medicine also exerted its stress-protective effect against a broad spectrum of harmful factors including heat shock, skin burn, cooling, frostbite, immobilisation, swimming under load in an atmosphere with decreased air pressure, aseptic inflammation, irradiation, and heavy metal intoxication(1233).
In oxidative stress induced damage heart(1242) tissues in animal models, schisandrin B (Sch B), a dibenzocyclooctadiene derivative isolated from the fruit of Schisandra chinensis attenuated cardiotoxicity via antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects(1242). In oxidative stress induced liver damage, oral administration of Schisandra Lignans Extract (SLE)(1243)(1244) or triterpenoid(1245) a chemical constituent from Schisandra chinensis significantly reduced liver damage(1243)(1244)(1245) in experimental animal model, through its effects of balance of oxidation and reduction in cells(1243) or upregulating cell cycle progression(1244) and anti tumor antigen(1244), or ameliorating oxidative stress(1245).

the dry regions of India, northern Africa, and the Middle East - See more at: http://www.chopra.com/ccl/ashwagandha#sthash.3NRUTGqC.dpuf
the dry regions of India, northern Africa, and the Middle East - See more at: http://www.chopra.com/ccl/ashwagandha#sthash.3NRUTGqC.dpuf
the dry regions of India, northern Africa, and the Middle East - See more at: http://www.chopra.com/ccl/ashwagandha#sthash.3NRUTGqC.dpuf, used in Ayurvedic medicine for applied externally to treat tumors, tubercular glands, carbuncles, and  
Women with PCOS who are under holistic treatment must keep in mind that herbal, nutritional, and lifestyle therapies can take time to achieve the improvement of their symptoms, quality of life, and, the goal to start a family.
“[Women] might notice improvement as early as a month or two,” said Dr. Stansbury, “but since this is shifting your whole hormonal balance and acting on the liver and adrenals and ovarian function and pituitary feedback loops, I give women a six-month to 12-month game plan.”, according to American botanical council(1245a)

The Herbal Treatment for Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOs)


Epidemically, increased incidence and prevalence of overweight and obesity over 3 decades in the develop world now has spread to South East Asian population, due to over 20 years of economic prosperity causes of lifestyle changes in populations with very different initial habits. Suggestions of reduced fat intake less than 30% of total calories with a low proportion of saturated fat with high in fiber from predominantly low-glycaemic-index-carbohydrate foods is recommended. Calorie intake should be distributed between several meals per day with restricted intake of snacks and drinks(1827a)(828).

1. Turmeric
Turmeric is a perennial plant in the genus Curcuma, belonging to the family Zingiberaceae, native to tropical South Asia. The herb has been used in traditional medicine as anti-oxidant, hypoglycemic, colorant, antiseptic, wound healing agent, and to treat flatulence, bloating, and appetite loss, ulcers, eczema, inflammations, etc.
 Berberine (BBR), a major chemical constituents found abundantly in turmeric and plants exerted its effect in improving some of the metabolic(829) and hormonal derangements in a group of treated Chinese women with PCOS(829).

2. Korean red ginseng
Ginseng Asia is also known as Panax ginseng. Since it has been grown in the cold places in the Asian, Asian ginseng is considered as yang promoting, according to traditional Chinese medicine.
Korean red ginseng extract (KRGE) in the experiment in PCOs induced rodent, improved PCO-related ovarian dysfunction(830). In rat model, induced by injection of estradiol valerate (EV), the extract also regulated sympathetic nerve activity by significantly lower expression of NGF protein (involved in the growth of peripheral nerve cells) and NGF mRNA(the form of RNA that carries information from DNA) involved in the abnormal process caused by steroid-induced PCO(830). Also, in the experiment of Ginseng total saponins (GTS) involved polycystic ovaries induced by a single intramuscular injection of 4 mg estradiol valerate (EV) in rats, GTS decreased the expression of NGF in ovary tissue(831).

3. Aloe vera
Aloe Vera is species of succulent plant in the genus Aloe, belonging to the Family Xanthorrhoeaceae, native to Sudan. It has become very popular for commercial cultivation due to its health benefits. Aloe vera has been used in herbal medicine in treating many kinds of disease, including wound(842), burn healing(835)(836), minor skin infections(837), sebaceous cysts(838), diabetes(839)(840)(843), and elevated of cholesterol(841), etc. It is also one of many popular herb studied in scientific ways with some conflicted results.
Aloe vera gel (AVG) exhibited significant reduction in plasma triglyceride and LDL cholesterol levels, with an increase in HDL cholesterol(843) and reversion of abnormal estrous cyclicity, glucose  intolerance, and lipid metabolizing enzyme activities, to normal in PCOS induced in Charles Foster female rats(833). On Letrozole induced polycystic ovarian,  Aloe vera gel formulation exerted a protective effect against the PCOS phenotype by restoring the ovarian steroid status, and altering key production of steroids activity(834).

4. Salvia miltiorrhiza (Dan Shen)
Dan Shen is also known as Red Sage Root. The bitter and slightly cold herb has been used in TCM as antithrombotic, antihypertonic (lowering blood pressure), antimicrobial, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, sedative agent and to treat dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea, palpable tumors, angina,restlessness, insomnia, irritability, etc., by enhancing the functions of heart and liver(848). 
Cryptotanshinone, isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza, in the experiment involved prenatally androgenized (PNA) rats as a model of polycystic ovary syndrome, improved estrous cycles, reduced 17-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione, testosterone, glucose, insulin levels, and  lowered AUC-Glu(Measurements were made of the area under the curve of glucose by intravenous glucose tolerance test) and HOMA-IR( a method used to quantify insulin resistance and beta-cell function)(832).

5. Chamomile
Chamomile is also known as camomile, common name of many species daisy-like plants in the family Asteraceae, used in traditional medicine as antispasmodic(844) and anti-inflammatory(845) constituents and for treatments of diarrhea(844), menstrual cramps(844) and sleep disorders(847), reduce cramping and spastic pain in the bowels(844), relieve excessive gas and bloating in the intestine(844), etc.
Intraperitoneal injections of Chamomile alcoholic-extract for ten days in the testing on the biochemical and clinical parameters in a rat model of PCOS not only induced recovery from a PCO induced state in rats(846), but also increased dominant follicles and better endometrial tissue arrangements(846)(849).

6. Spearmint tea
Spearmint tea is a species of Mint belonging to the Lamiaceae, native to Europe and southwest Asia. The herb has been used in folk medicine for treatment of pain reliever(850), loss of appetite(851), common cold(851), bronchitis(851), sinusitis(851), fever(851), nausea(851), vomiting and indigestion(851), etc.
Spearmint tea inhibited the production of the levels or activity of androgen hormones in the human body  may be considered as a natural agent for PCOs.(852). In Hirsutism polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), drinking spearmint tea twice a day for a 1 month period, showed the significantly reduce total testosterone levels, due to the inhibition of  androgen properties(853). In other study of polycystic ovary syndrome and idiopathic hirsutism, steep Spearmint tea for 5 days twice a day in the  follicular phase of their menstrual cycles significant decreased in free testosterone and increased in luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and estradiol(854).

8.  Licorice
Gan Cao is also known as Licorice root. The sweet and neutral herb has been used in TCM as anti allergy(856), anti inflammation(855), anti ulcer(857), anti convulsion(858) agent  and to treat stomach weakness, tired and lack of strength, cough with abundance of phlegm, stomach and solar plexus pain, and improve cardiac function(855), etc., as it tonifies the Spleen, benefits the Qi, moistens the Lungs, calms cough, deaf or acute pain, by enhancing all 12 channels(859).
In treatment of PCOs(862), combination of licorice and 100 mg spironolactone showed the activation of the renin-aldosterone system in lowering blood pressure and water (fluid) balance(860). reducing the prevalence of side effects related to the diuretic activity of spironolactone(860). In model rats experiment, Ganshao Paste (CGP), showed the decrease of serum levels of LH, T, and FSH and increase of serum estradiol (E2), and progesterone (P)(861)(865).

9. HemoHIM

HemoHIM is a herbal formula containing three edible herbs, Angelica Radix, Cnidium Rhizoma and Paeonia Radix approved by Korean FDA as  health functional supplement assisting functions of the immune system(863)(964). In adult PCOs cycling rats induced EV injection and administered orally (100 mg/kg of body weight/day) for 35 consecutive days, the formula lowered the high numbers of antral follicles and increased the number of corpora lutea(864), normalized ovarian morphology and the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) in PCOs(864).

(See the references page for citations)
1. The Holistic Prevention, Management of PCOs analysed through Conventional Medicine Research and Studies(Part I) - The Prevention
2. The Holistic Prevention, Management of PCOs analysed through Conventional Medicine Research and Studies (Part II)- The Conventional Supplement page
3. The Holistic Prevention, Management of PCOs analysed through Conventional Medicine Research and Studies(Part III) - The Weight loss approach
5. The Holistic Prevention, Management of PCOs analysed through Conventional Medicine Research and Studies(Part V) - The TCM approach
7. The Holistic Prevention, Management of PCOs analysed through Conventional Medicine Research and Studies(References page of 700 -1499)