Thursday, 27 March 2014

Benign prostatic hyperplasia(BPH) in Vitamin C Points of View

Kyle J. Norton

Benign prostatic hyperplasia(BPH) is defined as a condition of increased in the number of cells of prostate gland, causing partial, or sometimes virtually complete obstruction of the urinary tract. According to statistic, BPH commonly starts at age of 30 and symptoms usually can not be realized until age of 50. More than half of men between age of 60-70 are experience symptoms of BPH and only 10% are required treatment.

Vitamin C, also known as L-ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble vitamin, found in fresh fruits, berries and green vegetables. It is best known for its free radical scavengers activity and regenerating oxidized vitamin E for immune support.
Epidemiological studies linking dietary vitamin C in reduced risk of Benign prostatic hyperplasia(BPH) may be inconclusive(a)(b)(c).

The study of Vitamin C supplementation for its effect of HIF-1alpha, highly expressed in hyperplasic prostates and prevents prostate cell death by Soul National University College of Medicine indicated that vitamin C effectively prevent prostate hyperplasia through its suppression on HIF-1alpha via prolyl hydroxylation(1). The study of phenol composition and antioxidant capacity of Epilobium species at the 1Semmelweis University, also support the role vitamin C in reduced risk of BHP through its radical-scavenger activity(2). Some researchers suggested that  free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced more with advancement of age, causing oxidative stress associated with BPH, due to significant decrease in plasma alpha-Toc and Asc level in BPH patients(3). The comparison of the effectiveness of  cimetidine 1 g/day for 4 weeks and 30 received vitamin C 1 g/day for the same period of a total of 60 patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) study, showed no significant difference between the 2 groups (mean urinary flow, subjective obstructive or irritative symptoms, or prostate size) but Cimetidine was found to be no more active than vitamin C in treating benign prostatic hypertrophy(4). Regardless how effective the supplements are, some researchers ruled out the use of supplements because over consumption can be harmful(5).

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(a) Fruit and vegetable consumption, intake of micronutrients, and benign prostatic hyperplasia in US men by Rohrmann S1, Giovannucci E, Willett WC, Platz EA.(PubMed)
(b) Intake of selected micronutrients and the risk of surgically treated benign prostatic hyperplasia: a case-control study from Italy by Tavani A1, Longoni E, Bosetti C, Maso LD, Polesel J, Montella M, Ramazzotti V, Negri E, Franceschi S, La Vecchia C.(PubMed)
(c) A case-control study of prostatic cancer with reference to dietary habits by Oishi K1, Okada K, Yoshida O, Yamabe H, Ohno Y, Hayes RB, Schroeder FH.(PubMed)
(1) Vitamin C supplementation prevents testosterone-induced hyperplasia of rat prostate by down-regulating HIF-1alpha by Li SH1, Ryu JH, Park SE, Cho YS, Park JW, Lee WJ, Chun YS.(PubMed)
(2) Polyphenol composition and antioxidant capacity of Epilobium species byHevesi Tóth B1, Blazics B, Kéry A.(PubMed)
(3) Oxidative stress in benign prostate hyperplasia by Aryal M1, Pandeya A, Gautam N, Baral N, Lamsal M, Majhi S, Chandra L, Pandit R, Das BK.(PubMed)
(4) Controlled study of cimetidine in the treatment of benign prostatic hypertrophy by Lindner A1, Ramon J, Brooks ME.(PubMed)
(5) Dietary patterns and prostatic diseases by Sebastiano C1, Vincenzo F, Tommaso C, Giuseppe S, Marco R, Ivana C, Giorgio R, Massimo M, Giuseppe M.(PubMed)

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