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Saturday, 6 February 2016

Most Common Disease of elder: The Clinical trials and Studies of Musculo-Skeletal disorders(MSDs) - Rheumatoid Arthritis: The Top minerals according to Herbal and TCM medicine

Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrients, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are medical condition mostly caused by work related occupations and working environment, affecting patients’ muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments and nerves and developing over time. A community sample of 73 females and 32 males aged 85 and over underwent a standardised examination at home. Musculoskeletal pain was reported by 57% of those interviewed. A major restriction of joint movement range was frequent in the shoulder but uncommon in other joints(1).

Types of Musculo-Skeletal disorders in elder(2)
1. Osteoarthritis
2. Gout
3. Rheumatoid Arthritis
4. Polymalagia Arthritis
5. Cervical myleopathy and spinal canal stenosis
6. Osteoporosis
7. Low back pain
8. Fibromyalgia


                      Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid Arthritis is defined a chronic disorder as a result of inflammation, affecting mostly the flexible (synovial) joints and tissues and organs in the body. The disease affects more women than men and generally occurs after the ages of 40, causing diminished quality of life of many elders(1). According to CDC, Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) affects over 52 millions of adults in the US alone, including 294,000 children under age 18 with some form of arthritis or rheumatic conditions(2). Rheumatoid Arthritis can induced bone loss through elevating bone resorption without increasing bone formation(4). A cross-sectional population-based study of 1042 patients with rheumatoid arthritis showed that RA patients had an increased risk of death from various causes(4a).


                          The Treatment

B. Treatment in herbal and traditional Chinese medicine

B.3. The Preventive Minerals and Vitamins
1. Minerals for Immunity
Strengthen immunity plays an important role in regulating the free radical and other form of irregular cell growth causes of inflammation and auto immune diseases as well as attenuating the foreigner invasion. According to the study maintaining normal levels of  Copper, Selenium and Zinc have found to improve immune function against morbidity, decrease antibody production, infection, impaired natural killing cells, etc......(252) in animal study. Also according to Dr. Kremer JM and Bigaouette J., deficiency of pyridoxine, zinc, copper, and magnesium may induce rheumatoid arthritis expression(253).
1.1. Copper
Epidemiological studies suggested that levels of copper may be influence to the risk of rheumatoid arthritis has produced inconclusive results, it probably due to the disease orgination(254)(255). According to the relevant published data were retrieved through PubMed, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM) before September 20, 2014 of 1444 RA cases and 1241 healthy controls, above normal serum levels of copper (Cu) has found in patients with rheumatoid arthritis(254). Dr Li J and the research team at the joint study lead by Sichuan University, suggested patient with rheumatoid arthritis with B-lymphocyte dysfunction are associated to lower levels of copper, selenium and zinc levels(255). Other study insisted that the alternation of copper concentration may be a result of the changes of the immunoregulatory cytokines(256). Dr Percival SS said,"The immune system requires copper to perform several functions,.....interleukin 2 is reduced and T cell proliferation are reduced in copper deficiency"(257).

1.2. Magnesium
Dr. Minton K. in the study of mutation of Mutation of the magnesium transporter 1 (MAGT1) gene has been found to associate to immunodeficiency due to reduced levels of magnesium(258), inducing severe chronic viral infections and inflammations(259). Deficiency of magnesium is found in patient with RA(253), routine dietary supplementation with multivitamins and trace elements is appropriate in this population(253), Dr. Kremer JM1, Bigaouette J. suggested. The Ankara University study expressed only slight and statistically insignificant reductions of plasma and erythrocyte Mg levels of the RA patients showed when compared to controls, with a positive correlations between erythrocyte SOD activity and Mg level(260).

1.3. Selenium
Selenium, is found to be one of most powerful antioxidant in enhancing immune system in fighting against inflammatory and immune-related diseases, including anti-viral immunity, autoimmunity, sepsis, allergic asthma, and chronic inflammatory disorders mainly through its incorporation into selenoproteins(261). Low serum Se concentration is found to associate in patient with RA(262). But according to the Free University of Brussels, in a in a double blind multi-centric placebo-controlled study showed no clinical benefit selenium treatment on RA but a significant  improvement in arm movements and health feeling(263).

1.4. Zinc
Recent study showed that lower than normal serum levels of Zinc (Cu) has found in patients with rheumatoid arthritis(254).
Deficiency of zinc is found to increase immune response through activation of increasing immune cell and inducing  pro inflammatory ccytokines IL6(264), especially in aging population(265). who are vulnerable for the aging degenerative chronic diseases of rheumatoid arthritis(266).

1.5. Pyridoxine
Dietary pyridoxine showed to improve immune responses(267) and reduced the expression of pro inflammatory cytokines of that may relate to the early onset of rheomatoid arthritis(268) but the deficiency was not severe enough to affect the immune system, according to the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutricion(269). Dr Chiang EP. and the research team of the National Chung-Hsing University said, " Suboptimal vitamin B6 status seen in rheumatoid arthritis can be corrected by 50 mg pyridoxine supplementation for 30 days,.... but (The pyridoxine supplementation) did not suppress pro-inflammatory cytokine production in patients with rheumatoid arthritis"(270).


Arthritis Is Curable
You Can Eliminate Osteoarthritis
By addressing the Underlying Causes through Clinical Trials and Studies

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References
(252) Trace Minerals and Immunity in Beef Cattle by SQM
(253) Nutrient intake of patients with rheumatoid arthritis is deficient in pyridoxine, zinc, copper, and magnesium by Kremer JM1, Bigaouette J.(PubMed)
(254) Serum Levels of Copper and Zinc in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: a Meta-analysis. by Xin L1, Yang X1, Cai G1, Fan D1, Xia Q1, Liu L1, Hu Y1, Ding N1, Xu S2, Wang L1, Li X1, Zou Y1, Pan F3.(PubMed)
(255) Effects of B-lymphocyte dysfunction on the serum copper, selenium and zinc levels of rheumatoid arthritispatients by Li J1, Liang Y2, Mao H3, Deng W4, Zhang J5.(PubMed)
(256) Synovial fluid and plasma selenium, copper, zinc, and iron concentrations in patients with rheumatoid arthritisand osteoarthritis by Yazar M1, Sarban S, Kocyigit A, Isikan UE.(PubMed)
(257) Copper and immunity by Percival SS1(PubMed)
(258) Magnesium regulates antiviral immunity by Kirsty Minton(PubMed)
(259) MAGT1 by Genetic home reference
(260) Trace element and magnesium levels and superoxide dismutase activity in rheumatoid arthritis by Tuncer S1, Kamanli A, Akçil E, Kavas GO, Seçkin B, Atay MB.(PubMed)
(261) The role of selenium in inflammation and immunity: from molecular mechanisms to therapeutic opportunities by Huang Z1, Rose AH, Hoffmann PR.(PubMed)
(262) The Association Between Serum Selenium Levels with Rheumatoid Arthritis by Yu N1, Han F1, Lin X1, Tang C1, Ye J1, Cai X2.(PubMed)
(263) Selenium supplementation in rheumatoid arthritis investigated in a double blind, placebo-controlled trial by Peretz A1, Siderova V, Nève J.(PubMed)
(264) Zinc deficiency enhanced inflammatory response by increasing immune cell activation and inducing IL6 promoter demethylation by Wong CP1, Rinaldi NA, Ho E.(PubMed)
(265) Zinc and inflammatory/immune response in aging by Vasto S1, Mocchegiani E, Malavolta M, Cuppari I, Listì F, Nuzzo D, Ditta V, Candore G, Caruso C.(PubMed)
(266) Zinc and its role in immunity and inflammation by Bonaventura P1, Benedetti G1, Albarède F2, Miossec P3.(PubMed)
(267) Effects of dietary pyridoxine on immune responses in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino by Chen H1, Mai K, Zhang W, Liufu Z, Xu W, Tan B.(PubMed)
(268) High dose dietary pyridoxine induces T-helper type 1 polarization and decreases contact hypersensitivity response to fluorescein isothiocyanate in mice by Kobayashi C1, Kurohane K, Imai Y.(PubMed)
(269) Biochemical deficiency of pyridoxine does not affect interleukin-2 production of lymphocytes from patients with Sjögren's syndrome by Tovar AR1, Gómez E, Bourges H, Ortíz V, Kraus A, Torres N.(PubMed)
(270) Pyridoxine supplementation corrects vitamin B6 deficiency but does not improve inflammation in patients withrheumatoid arthritis by Chiang EP1, Selhub J, Bagley PJ, Dallal G, Roubenoff R.(PubMed)