Kyle J. Norton (Scholar)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.
Dementia is defined as neuro degeneration syndrome among elder, affecting memory, thinking, orientation, comprehension, calculation, learning capacity, language, and judgement over 47 millions
of worldwide population, mostly in the West. The evaluation of the syndrome by holistic medicine has been lacking, especially through conventional medicine research and studies. The aim of this essay is to provide accurate information of how effective of holistic medicine in prevention, management and treatment of dementia through searching data base of PubMed.
This is the third time, a research paper has been written this way to general public that you will not find any where in the net. We would like to provide more of this kind of research, but unfortunately, it is time consuming and burdened financially, we have run out of time and the site will be shut down Monday(July 6, 2015). If you like what you read, please donate generously to our site.
B. Free radical causes of dementia
B.1. Alzheimer’s disease
1. Free radical and Alzheimer’s disease
Free radicals causes of Alzheimer’s disease is well defined in many researches(34). Oxidative stress-induced injury involved the selective modification of different intracellular proteins may lead to the neurofibrillary degeneration of neurons in the brain(34a)(34b).
2. Antioxidants and Alzheimer’s disease
a. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)
Change of brain aging in DHA metabolism, was found in patients with Alzheimer's disease(34c)(34d). DHA, a naturally occurring component found in every cell membrane with ability to increase phosphatidylserine(35)(35a) is important in decreased production of proinflammatory omega-6 eicosanoids causes of Alzheimer's disease(35b) and in improved the memory of animals with Alzheimer's disease by suppressing oxidative damage in the brain(41).
b. Vitamin E
Vitamin E reduced generalized inflammation, may slow the decline of mental and physical abilities in people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) over the long term(36). Also vitamin E inhibited cells damage and cells death caused by beta-amyloid(36a)(36b), which is toxic to brain cells(36c).
Patients who had Alzheimer’s disease taken100 milligrams per day (mg/day) of phosphatidylserine scored significantly better on standardized memory tests at the end of the 12-week trial period than patients without(37)(40).
Antioxidant are found at much lower levels for patients with Alzheimer’s disease(38), such as serum of vitamin A, C, E, zinc and transfferin. Carotenoids are fat-soluble antioxidants that may protect polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as n-3 fatty acids from oxidation(39)
e. Muscarinic cholinergic receptors
Alzheimer’s disease patients showed to exhibit the significant loss of muscarinic cholinergic receptors neurons(42) causes of reduced volume of neural transmission that can lead to loss of memory(43).
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(34a) PROTEIN OXIDATION IN THE BRAIN IN ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE M. Y. AKSENOV,a,d* M. V. AKSENOVA,a,b D. A. BUTTERFIELD,a,c J. W. GEDDESa,d and W. R. MARKESBERYa,b a Sanders-Brown Center on Aging, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536, US.(Pergamon)
(34b) Interactions between β-amyloid and central cholinergic neurons: implications for Alzheimer's disease by Satyabrata Kar, Stephen P.M. Slowikowski, David Westaway, and Howard T.J. Mount(PubMed)
(34c) The Impact of Cholesterol, DHA, and Sphingolipids on Alzheimer's Disease by Marcus O. W. Grimm, Valeri e C. Zimmer, 1 Johannes Lehmann, Heike S. Grimm, and Tobias Hartmann (PubMed)
(34d) DHA Improves Cognition and Prevents Dysfunction of Entorhinal Cortex Neurons in 3xTg-AD Mice Dany Arsenault,1,2 Carl Julien,1,2 Cyntia Tremblay,2 and Frédéric Calon1,2,(PubMed)
(35) Administration of DHA-PS to aged mice was suitable for increasing hippocampal PS and DHA ratio by Ohkubo T1, Tanaka Y.(PubMed)
(35a) Neuronal specific increase of phosphatidylserine by docosahexaenoic acid.by Guo M1, Stockert L, Akbar M, Kim HY.(PubMed)
(35b) Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an essential fatty acid for the proper functioning of neuronal cells: their role in mood disorders By Alfonso Valenzuela B. ( University of Chile)
(36) Vitamin E for Alzheimer's dementia and mild cognitive impairment by Farina N1, Isaac MG, Clark AR, Rusted J, Tabet N.(PubMed)
(36a)Inflammatory mediator and beta-amyloid (25-35)-induced ceramide generation and iNOS expression are inhibited by vitamin E by Ayasolla K1, Khan M, Singh AK, Singh I.(PubMed)
(36b) Vitamin E but not 17beta-estradiol protects against vascular toxicity induced by beta-amyloid wild type and the Dutch amyloid variant by Muñoz FJ1, Opazo C, Gil-Gómez G, Tapia G, Fernández V, Valverde MA, Inestrosa NC.(PubMed)