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Thursday, 25 May 2017

The Research and studies of Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs): Rheumatoid Arthritis - Signs and Symptoms of Rheumatoid nodules

Kyle J. Norton, Master of Nutrients
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are medical condition mostly caused by work related occupations and working environment, affecting patients’ muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments and nerves and developing over time. A community sample of 73 females and 32 males aged 85 and over underwent a standardised examination at home. Musculoskeletal pain was reported by 57% of those interviewed(1).

Types of Musculo-Skeletal disorders in elder(2)

1. Osteoarthritis
2. Gout
3. Rheumatoid Arthritis
4. Polymalagia Arthritis
5. Cervical myleopathy and spinal canal stenosis
6. Osteoporosis
7. Low back pain
8. Fibromyalgia

                                                                  Rheumatoid Arthritis



Rheumatoid Arthritis is defined a chronic disorder as a result of inflammation, affecting mostly the flexible (synovial) joints and tissues and organs in the body. The disease affects more women than men and generally occurs after the ages of 40, causing diminished quality of life of many elders(1). According to CDC, Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) affects over 52 millions of adults in the US alone, including 294,000 children under age 18 with some form of arthritis or rheumatic conditions(2). Rheumatoid Arthritis can induced bone loss through elevating bone resorption without increasing bone formation(4). A cross-sectional population-based study of 1042 patients with rheumatoid arthritis showed that RA patients had an increased risk of death from various causes(4a).

Signs and Symptoms of The Rheumatoid nodules



Rheumatoid nodules, lump on the skin, closed to the joint have been found to affect the joints of patients with rheumatoid nodules(18). Treatment of rheumatoid nodules are necessary in odd cases if the patient are experiencing pain or interference of mechanical function, according to Dr. Tilstra JS and Dr.Lienesch DW.(19). Use of methotrexate (MTX) in patient with RA may accelerate the occurance of nodulosis in the fingers. but nodules will be resolved after methotrexate was discontinued and recurred after methotrexate was reintroduced(20).
5. Conjunctival nodule
Although is rare in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, the appreance of the nodules may exhibit the
severity of the underlying disease, according to the Tehran University of Medical Sciences(21), including Pityriasis Lichenoides et Varioliformis Acuta(22), Epstein-Barr virus(23)




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References

(1) 8 Areas of Age-Related Change(NIH)
(2) Arthritis-Related Statistics(CDC)
(3) Valgus deformities of the feet and characteristics of gait in patients who have rheumatoid arthritis by Keenan MA1, Peabody TD, Gronley JK, Perry J.(PubMed)
(4) Serum Sclerostin Level Among Egyptian Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: Relation to Disease Activity ,Bone Mineral Density and Radiological Grading by Mehaney DA, Eissa M, Anwar S, El-Din SF(PubMed)
(4a) Death rates and causes of death in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a population-based study by Sihvonen S1, Korpela M, Laippala P, Mustonen J, Pasternack A(PubMed)
(5) The rheumatoid forefoot by Brooks F1, Hariharan K.(PubMed)
(6) Rheumatoid forefoot reconstruction by Amin A1, Cullen N, Singh D.(PubMed)
(7) We should not forget the foot: relations between signs and symptoms, damage, and function in rheumatoid arthritis by Baan H1, Drossaers-Bakker W, Dubbeldam R, van de Laar M.(PubMed)
(8) Pain and joint mobility explain individual subdimensions of the health assessment questionnaire (HAQ) disability index in patients with rheumatoid arthritis by Häkkinen A1, Kautiainen H, Hannonen P, Ylinen J, Arkela-Kautiainen M, Sokka T.(PubMed)
(9) Gait pattern in rheumatoid arthritis by Weiss RJ1, Wretenberg P, Stark A, Palmblad K, Larsson P, Gröndal L, Broström E.(PubMed)
(10) Valgus deformities of the feet and characteristics of gait in patients who have rheumatoid arthritis by Keenan MA1, Peabody TD, Gronley JK, Perry J.(PubMed)
(11) Gait analysis of the lower limb in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review by Baan H1, Dubbeldam R, Nene AV, van de Laar MA.(PubMed)
(12) Ankylosis of the wrist bones in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a study with extremity-dedicated MRI by Barbieri F1, Zampogna G1, Camellino D1, Paparo F2, Cutolo M1, Garlaschi G3, Cimmino MA4.(PubMed)
(13) Strengthening And stretching for Rheumatoid Arthritis of the Hand (SARAH). A randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation by Williams MA1, Williamson EM1, Heine PJ1, Nichols V1, Glover MJ2, Dritsaki M2, Adams J3, Dosanjh S1, Underwood M1, Rahman A4, McConkey C1, Lord J1,Lamb SE1.(PubMed)
(14) Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in the hand by Brosseau L1, Judd MG, Marchand S, Robinson VA, Tugwell P, Wells G, Yonge K(PubMed)
(15) A randomized two-year study of the effects of dynamic strength training on muscle strength, disease activity, functional capacity, and bone mineral density in early rheumatoid arthritis by Häkkinen A1, Sokka T, Kotaniemi A, Hannonen P.(PubMed)
(16) Muscular strength as a strong predictor of mortality: A narrative review by Volaklis KA1, Halle M2, Meisinger C3.(PubMed)
(17) Personer med reumatoid artrit bör uppmanas till fysisk aktivitet.[Article in Swedish]by Brodin N1, Swärdh E1.(PubMed)
(18) Microchimerism in the rheumatoid nodules of patients with rheumatoid arthritis by Chan WF1, Atkins CJ, Naysmith D, van der Westhuizen N, Woo J, Nelson JL.(PubMed)
(19) Rheumatoid Nodules by Tilstra JS1, Lienesch DW2.(PubMed)
(20)Accelerated cutaneous nodulosis during methotrexate therapy in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis by Williams FM1, Cohen PR, Arnett FC.(PubMed)
(21) Conjunctival nodule in rheumatoid arthritis by Kheirkhah A1, Amoli FA, Azari AA, Molaei S, Roozbahani M.(PubMed)
(22) Conjunctival Inflammatory Nodule in a Patient with Pityriasis Lichenoides et Varioliformis Acuta by Elad Moisseiev* and David Varssano(PMC)
(23) Conjunctival lymphocytic nodule associated with the Epstein-Barr virus by Gardner BP1, Margolis TP, Mondino BJ.(PubMed)
(24) Morning stiffness in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis is associated more strongly with functional disability than with joint swelling and erythrocyte sedimentation rate by Yazici Y1, Pincus T, Kautiainen H, Sokka T.(PubMed)(25) Improvement Thresholds for Morning Stiffness Duration in Patients Receiving Delayed- Versus Immediate-Release Prednisone for Rheumatoid Arthritis by Buttgereit F, Kent JD, Holt RJ, Grahn AY, Rice P, Alten R, Yazici Y.(PubMed)
(26) Efficacy of modified-release versus standard prednisone to reduce duration of morning stiffness of the joints inrheumatoid arthritis (CAPRA-1): a double-blind, randomised controlled trial by Buttgereit F1, Doering G, Schaeffler A, Witte S, Sierakowski S, Gromnica-Ihle E, Jeka S, Krueger K, Szechinski J, Alten R.(PubMed)
(27) Change of psychological distress and physical disability in patients with rheumatoid arthritis over the last two decades by Overman CL1, Jurgens MS, Bossema ER, Jacobs JW, Bijlsma JW, Geenen R.(PubMed)
(28) Optimizing Rheumatoid Arthritis Therapy: Using Objective Measures of Disease Activity to Guide Treatment by Owens GM1(PubMed)
(29) Physical activity, disability, and quality of life in older adults by Motl RW1, McAuley E.(PubMed)
(30) Concurrent psychiatric disorders are associated with significantly poorer quality of life in patients with rheumatoid arthritis by Mok CC1, Lok EY, Cheung EF(PubMed)
(31) Pain and the brain: chronic widespread pain by Arnold LM1(PubMed)